Wednesday, October 30, 2019

What is meant by transaction costs and what part do they play in our Essay

What is meant by transaction costs and what part do they play in our understanding of the reasons for the existence of firms - Essay Example Coase’s theory that the transaction costs form the economic groundwork for all firms, thus becoming the sole reason for the existence of any organisation within marketplace, however has met with a number of contradictions. Many economists contend that existence of firms is not solely dependent on transaction costs. Other abilities (like being able to handle large variety of resources)   are of great advantage to any firm, especially in the context of new technologies, which create various opportunities where the organisation can improve their production values and increase their revenues, where the earned benefits accumulate to ‘start-ups,’ capable of creating more contemporary firms (  Alchian, and Demsetz, 1972, 777-795). Thus here the basic question is: does Coase’s theory on transaction costs present a holistic view on explaining why firms exist? In  economics,  transaction cost  refers to the expenditure  incurred while making a financial exchange, which can be stated as the cost incurred when one wishes to participate in a market. Humans by nature are social animals and tend to group together to conduct their various daily affairs, conducting business being one of them. Bartering is also another basic human nature, and this is most evident in marketplaces, where individuals tend to seek the best bargain by competing with their opponents (Maynard, 1982). Markets are organised social spaces for conducting such businesses or exchange of items and have been in vogue from the ancient times. Right from its origin there has been two forms of market: external market, where trade took place between communities, located at long distances from each other; and internal market, which is located within a particular society or community (Swedberg, 2005, 234-235). The producers gather here for gaining more customers;

Monday, October 28, 2019

Family in African-American Literature Essay Example for Free

Family in African-American Literature Essay In literary pieces such as Alice Walker’s story â€Å"Everyday Use†, Langston Hughes’ â€Å"My People†, and Robert Hayden’s poem â€Å"Those Winter Sundays†, the theme of family relationships is significantly evident. In â€Å"Everyday Use†, Walker presents one stage and aspect of a family life when one adult child chooses to live on her own while the other one stays with the family. Hughes’ poem portrays his love for his people which he considers to be a family as a whole. Meanwhile, Hayden’s â€Å"Those Winter Sundays†, talks about the narration and description of a boy about his father whom he is not well acquainted with. As the first piece speaks of a story about a family in relation to their heritage, the latter speaks of a boy’s reminiscence of a father who was never able to show his love directly to his children. These two aspects of family relationships reveal several angles to look upon.   Such family situations are influenced by authors’ own race and heritage. Alice Walker portrays the story of a fully grown-up daughter, Dee, who goes back to home to her home to visit her mother, Mrs. Johnson and her younger sister, Maggie. She arrives accompanied by an African American Muslim man who is currently dating her. She comes home to collect some family possessions which she intends to turn into artistic pieces to be exhibited in a museum. Meanwhile, her sister Maggie grimaces as her sister takes some of their personal belongings including a quilt that her mother has promised to give her as a wedding present. Dee tells her mother that Maggie would only ruin the quilt by using it everyday which puzzles Mrs. Johnson as she could not think of any way to use the quilt than to spread them. When Mrs. Johnson sees the sadness in her younger daughter’s eyes upon Dee taking the quilt, she snatches it away and gives it to Maggie. Dee walks away after claiming that their problem is they do not understand their own heritage (Walker). In this story, Walker portrays a family whose eldest daughter has become estranged from them. In the first part of the story, Mrs. Johnson recounts how Dee had hated living in their house and even almost set it on fire when she was young. The concept of a dysfunctional family is quite present here; however, it focuses more on the mother-child relationship rather than every member of the family. It is important to note that Walker made use of the damaged relationship of Dee to her mother and sister to show and illustrate the different types of African American people. On the other hand, Langston Hughes shows his love and appreciation for his people in his poem â€Å"My People†. He does not speak of family but his tone and use of words make it seem as if he is speaking of his beloved family. â€Å"The night is beautiful, / So the faces of my people† (lines 1-2). The possessive pronoun â€Å"my† indicates a certain intimacy between him and â€Å"his† people which is usually used for referring to a small group of people who shares something intimate and common such as â€Å"my family†. In this regard, Hughes speaks highly of his race as if he is talking about a family he loves most. â€Å"The stars are beautiful, /  So the eyes of my people† (3-4). The comparison of his people to the heavens indicates the depth of his love and care for them as he would to his family. â€Å"Beautiful, also, is the sun. / Beautiful, also, are the souls of my people† (5-6). In the poem â€Å"Those Winter Sundays†, it can be assumed that Robert Hayden personally speaks through the voice of the speaker in his poem â€Å"Those Winter Sundays†. His distant relationship with his father is evident. In this melancholic poem, he narrates about the concealed appreciation of a son for his father’s acts of love by means of writing it in a prose. The narrator tells about the labors of his father even on a cold winter Sunday. However, in the poem, the speaker emphasizes that his father’s great efforts are usually ignored. The title of the poem itself already suggests a background for the readers. The speaker is obviously focused only on the â€Å"winter Sundays† and why it means too much work for the father. In the first stanza of the poem, the detailed description of the speaker’s father is very noticeable. He illustrated him by means of mentioning his physical condition as he works on cold Sundays. He could have described it in a clearer way by going straight to the point.   Nevertheless, he expressed his father’s poor countenance in a way that the reader can visualize the father’s hands cracked hands and the busy Sundays. The first two lines of the poem somewhat develops a thesis that would cover the whole idea in the poem. â€Å"Sundays too my father got up early / And put his clothes on in the blueblack cold,† (1-2). Sundays should be a day of rest but the speaker stresses that his father still wakes up even before the sun rose to go to work. He further highlights the weary countenance of his father as he describes his father’s â€Å"cracked hands that ached / from labor in the weekday weather made / Banked fires blaze† (3-5). The poem further shows how heartbreaking the father’s situation must be by writing the last line of the first stanza with, â€Å"No one ever thanked him† (5). With the last line, it is reasonable to consider that the speaker is one of those people who failed to thank him. In this regard, it can be assumed that the speaker is already in his old or middle age when he remembers how his father has shown him love in his own way. Clearly, these renowned African-American writers have frequently used the theme of family relationships to further address the problems of their society. The issues of racism, nationalism, and love are the implicit ideas which are present in the three literary pieces discussed. These authors portrays different types of African-American families which serves as the representation of the current society that they are in. since the family is the basic unit of society, it is the primary target of societal effects such as racism and other social issues. Every problem of the society can become the problem of the family which is why the most meaningful literary works of art somewhat involves the theme of family relationships. Works Cited Hayden, Robert. â€Å"Those Winter Sundays.† The Oxford Anthology of African-American Poetry. Ed. Arnold Rampersad, Hilary Herbold. United States of America: Oxford University Press US, 2006. 261. Hughes, Langston. â€Å"My People.† Poem Hunter. 19 April 2009. Walker, Alice. Everyday Use. Ed. Barbara Christian. United States of America: Rutgers University Press, 1994.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

True Love in The Merchant of Venice Essay -- Merchant of Venice Essays

True Love in The Merchant of Venice      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Among the various themes presented in the Merchant of Venice the most important is the nature of true love.   The casket plot helps illustrate the theme.   Through a variety of suitors the descriptions of the caskets, Shakespeare shows the reader how different people view true love. He also shows what is most important to the suitors and in some cases it is not true love, but material things and outward appearance.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The first suitor who tries to win Portia's hand is the Prince of Morocco.   When he first arrives in Belmont, the reader can see how arrogant the prince is, He says, "The best regarded virgins of our clilme/ hath loved it too..." (2.1, 10-11).   He is referring to the color of his ski n that is black.   He is telling Portia that his complexion has won him many women and he is dressed in all white.   The fact that he is, suggests that he is only concerned with outward appearance, and not with more important things such as true love.   The Prince of Morocco's superficial nature shines through even more clearly when it comes time to choose the casket. He does not want to risk anything, and therefore; he does not choose the lead casket whose inscription tells the suitor he must give up everything. The Prince, after looking at the inscription of the gold casket, which read "'who chooseth me shall gain what many men desire'" (2.7, 37), decides that what he desires most is the Portia's hand so the gold must be the correct casket.   He insists that the gold casket is the one holding Portia's picture because she is so much worthier than the lead casket.   The Prince believes t... ...ove, however, is for Bassanio and she wants to marry him.   Bassanio, by choosing to risk everything he has, shows the effects that true love can have on someone.   True love can conquer any fears or apprehensions you may have. He was willing to risk everything he had in order to show his love for Portia.   In the play, Bassanio shows what true love really means and how one can not mistake outward appearances for true love.   Put succinctly, one can do nothing but agree with the adage love conquers all.    Works Cited and Consulted    Barnet Sylvan.   "Introduction." The Merchant of Venice Ed. Sylvan Barnet.   New   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Jersey : Prentice-Hall Inc., 1970.   1-10.    Granville-Barker, Harley.   "The Merchant of Venice.   " Shakespeare Ed. Leonard F. Dean.   Princeton : Princeton University Press, 1947.   37-71.   

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Famine, Affluence, and Morality Essay

By â€Å"drowning,† I mean those who are suffering help people. A few of the counter-arguments that Singer addresses are: One, that he government will be less likely to take responsibility because private organizations are organizing relief funds. Giving privately allows the government to escape their responsibilities of supplying aid. Singer does not believe that this assumption is plausible. He states: I do not, of course, want to dispute the contention that governments of affluent nations should be giving many times the amount of genuine, no-strings-attached aid that they are giving now. I agree, too, that giving privately is not enough, and that we ought to be campaigning actively for entirely new standards or both public and private contributions to famine relief. Indeed, I would sympathize with someone who thought that campaigning was more important than giving one- self, although I doubt whether preaching what one does not practice would be very effective. Unfortunately, for many people the idea that â€Å"it’s the government’s responsibility† is a reason for not giving which does not appear to entail any political action either. Two, until there is an effective population control, relieving famine will postpone starvation. If we relieve suffering that is happening in the now, the future may end p suffering instead. The best means of preventing famine is population control. However, there are organizations who work specifically with population control. Therefore, this counter-argument is not sufficient enough to allow us to stand in the background. The third counter-argument would be how much we should be giving away. Should we be giving away more that would cause suffering to ourselves? Earlier in Singer’s article, he suggests that if everybody in his situation could donate E5, then nobody would be obligated to give more. He does not suggest that we give until we each the level marginal utility- the level at which by giving more, would cause as much suffering to ourselves or our dependents. Singer’s concept of marginal utility relates to his argument by explaining and understanding that there are some people who cannot afford to support relief funds. He simply states â€Å"if everyone in circumstances like mine. † This means that not everybody will be in the same circumstance to provide funds for relief. Duty and charity, according to Singer, should be redrawn or abolished. Doing good by giving money away’ is not considered charitable by Singer, but it is doing ood. We should refrain from buying clothes for fashion if we have old clothes that are suitable to keep us warm and give the money away instead. He says, â€Å"We would not be sacrificing anything significant if we were to continue to wear our old clothes, and give the money to famine relief. By doing so, we would be preve nting another person from starving. It follows from what I have said earlier that we ought to give money away, rather than spend it on clothes which we do not need to keep us warm. † This act is not considered charitable to Singer either. Our society, however, see’s hese act as charitable because it is a voluntary donation. Personally, I do not completely disagree with Singer’s views but, I do not completely agree with them either. Jan Narveson (2004) wrote in her article Is World Poverty a Moral Problem for the Wealthy? That she does not think we owe the poor anything special. People may benefit for charities, but we should not be looked at as not the responsibility of another countrys government to take care of a poor country. It is the same as I do not think the wealthy should have to pay more taxes than the poor. We all start from somewhere and some millionaires and billionaires had to start from the bottom as well. We all work hard for the salaries we earn. On the other hand, I think that charities are used for a good cause that benefit others rather than ourselves. Singer definitely had some points that if we all give a little, the world may be a better place. Narveson also wrote in another article Welfare and Wealth, Poverty and Justice in Todays World (2004), â€Å"each of us could do vastly more than we do to the needy. That we do not is a serious moral failing. † This is completely true and upports Singer’s views as well. However, her statement is far more accurate in what we could do, rather than what we should do. My view would fall under deontological ethics. Mosser (2010) states that â€Å"deontological ethics focuses on the will of the person carrying out the act in question, his or her intention in carrying it out, and, particularly, the rule according to which the act is carried out†. For me this means that there could be different outcomes for Singer’s argument and that every aspect should be looked at. It doesn’t make his view right or wrong, but it doesn’t make the iews that counter his right or wrong either. Peter Singer’s article â€Å"Famine, Affluence, and Morality,† was written to convince people that our decisions and actions can prevent other countries from suffering. He suggests that people should do what is morally right by contributing financially to aid those who are starving, rather than purchasing â€Å"wants† for those who can afford it. Singer argues his position, provides counter-arguments, and explains his concepts for aiding countries in need. My views are not against Singer’s position, but they are not for his position either. References Mosser, K. 2010).

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Admission essay formph

I strongly believe in the convincing statement of Albert Einstein, which states that â€Å"the important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing. One cannot help but be in awe when he contemplates the mysteries of eternity, of life, of the marvelous structure of reality.†Ã‚   Relating it in my own terms, my intention to study MPH is in effect the furtherance of my own understanding of medicine, research, and the pharmaceutical industry and a way of contemplation of the wonders of drugs juxtaposed with research and statistics.The importance of the interdisciplinary approach in understanding health and my few years of working as a medical doctor are the two main foundations why I am interested to apply for the Master of Public Health with Biostatistics as the field of concentration.Through the years, I have learned a lot about the substance of doing research vis-à  -vis the development of state of the art medical interventions as well as in t he discovery of new drugs that would cure long lasting illnesses. I also realized that health and medicine as a social institution is not solely for the biomedical scientists but also for social scientists and managers. Thus, taking the MPH will surely give me a taste of the other schools of thought that would enhance my managerial and social skills.It is in my consciousness that health issues are correlated with economic, social, political, cultural, and behavioral aspects. Thus, medical doctors nowadays should equip themselves with the theories and practices of the social sciences and management to be able to solve health predicaments in a holistic fashion. Thus, this has prompted me to seek admission to the MPH program.In the future, I would also like to involve myself in the pharmaceutical industry. Hence, I see the need to equip myself with the theories and technologies of biostatistics that would be helpful in my chosen career. In the pharmaceutical industry, biostatistics is of great use particularly in carrying out laboratory tests and clinical trials for new drugs and medical interventions.My entry to the program will not only improve myself but will surely help in making the pharmaceutical industry within the bounds of empiricism. By learning the tools and techniques of biostatistics, I will be able to know the other fields of medicine such as epidemiology which is also vital amongst the pharmaceutical personnel.Taking Biostatistics would help me come up with good work decisions through the use of hard evidence. Statistics and data will also enhance my management skills through evidence based problem solving. My previous background in medicine and the learning I will gain from the program will also surely help me ensure good medical practice, hence promote bioethics.My good mathematical ability and my work experience as a medical practitioner are good guarantees that I will be able to finish the degree. Coupled with these cognitive assets, my passion for the course will also help me to be able to finish the course with flying colors.Given my life experiences that brought me up to this point of my career, I am cognitively and physically prepared enough for me to make a good graduate student. I am looking forward to my future career in my chosen field with great keenness.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

GANGS Essays (1641 words) - Crime, Criminology, Urban Decay

GANGS Essays (1641 words) - Crime, Criminology, Urban Decay GANGS OVERVIEW OF GANGS Originally the word gang had no negative connotation. In Old English, gang simply referred to a "number of people who went around together-a group." Today a gang can be defined in four basic ways: ? an organized group with a leader ? a unified group that usually remains together during peaceful times as well as times of conflict ? a group whose members show unity through clothing, language ? a group whose activities are criminal or threatening to the larger society. Gangs are one of the results of poverty, discrimination and urban deterioration. Some experts believe that young people, undereducated and without access to good jobs, become frustrated with their lives and join gangs as an alternative to boredom, hopelessness and devastating poverty. Studies have attempted to determine why gangs plague some communities but there has been no definitive answer. As a result, people working to solve gang problems have great difficulty. They find the situation overwhelming, and the violence continues. EARLY GANGS IN UNITED STATES HISTORY No groups completely fitting the above description of gangs existed in America until the early 1800s, but from the beginning of the European settlement in America there was gang-like activity, especially when class distinctions came into being. Gang members tended to be from the poorer classes and tended to be from the same race or ethnic background. They banded together for protection, recreation or financial gain. THE 20TH CENTURY GANGS In the early 1900s the U.S. economy worsened, the population grew at a rapid pace, and the gap between the rich and poor widened. All across the nation gangs appeared where poor, hopeless people lived. The dawning of the 20th century also brought with it a widespread use of firearms. 1920s By mid 1920s there were 1313 gangs in Chicago and more than 25,000 members. Gang warfare in Chicago was widespread and fighting took place along ethnic, cultural and racial lines. Some gangs had no noticeable cultural, ethnic or national ties and consisted mostly of whites. Chicano Gangs The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of Chicano (Mexican-American) gangs in Los Angeles. By the 1940s Chicano gangs established their place in Los Angeles-their zoot suits (a style of dress incorporating tapered pants, long wide- shoulder coats and broad-brimmed hats) had become a familiar sight. Fighting back against harassment of white residents and visiting soldiers during the so-called zoot suit riots in 1943 strengthened their cause. Post World War II After World War II gang membership: 1.became younger, 2.the nationality of the membership became largely non-white (though Italians, Irish and other white ethnic groups still made up a percentage), 3.drugs became a more publicized concern, 4.gang activity centered around large-scale, well-organized street fighting, were used more often, 6.the structure of organization became more rigid, 7.and society at large became concerned with gangs as a social problem and worked toward rehabilitation. Changes in Ethnic Populations The 1950s During the 1950s gang fighting rose to an all time high in cities like New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles and Cleveland. Gang members were usually in their teens. Codes of dress (black leather jackets were popular) and mannerisms were an important means of identification. Body language said a lot about the nature of the gang. When a gang decided to become a fighting, or "bopping" gang, its members immediately took on a different way of walking. A rhythmic gait, characterized by the forward movement of the head with each step. Terms for fighting were: bopping, rumbling, jitterbugging. Gang members used guns, knives, and homemade weapons. Most common drugs-alcohol, marijuana, heroin. New York gangs fought along racial lines-African-American, white, Puerto Rican. Usually they fought over girls or turf. Turf could be anything from a few blocks to an entire neighborhood. Gang members believed it was essential to protect the honor of their girlfr! iends. And in the late 1950, girl gangs, with strong ties to boy gangs, began to form. Revenge was required by an inflexible code of gang loyalty. It was from such incidents that gangs drew their sense of pride, of "being somebody." In order to combat the rise of violence, organizations like the New York City Youth Board sent social workers into the slums to form relationships with the gangs. In some

Monday, October 21, 2019

Report On Pop Up Restaurants

Report On Pop Up Restaurants Introduction Mann (2011) observes that the pop up restaurants are an update of the underground supper club. They are legit, licensed, open to the public domain, and the chefs featured are of high profile preparing and serving delicious and quality dishes. According to Mann (2011) pop up restaurants are not stationed in a particular place.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Report On Pop Up Restaurants specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The difference with traditional restaurants is that they operate on a given time frame like a month, day or a week. After the period expires they can relocate to another location and start up another pop up restaurant. They are temporal restaurants that have operated during festivals and parties. They are short lived and in most cases operate from privately owned homes, open spaces like former factories among others. The emerging trend of pop up restaurants has been necessitated by the pop culture. Pop up restaurants in the UK emerged and become popular in the 2000s but they have become common everywhere and they no longer feature as new phenomenon. The target of the pop restaurants is the urbanite professionals of the aged 21 to 35 years. The social media platform is used by diners to make follow ups on the events being held up by the pop up restaurants. By the use of face book, MySpace, twitter, blogosphere among other social networks, they are able to follow up pop up restaurants movements. In most of the occasions, reservations are done online because the goers are technologically savvy. Young chefs who know what the youth want in terms of the menu provisions play integral part in the running of pop up restaurants. Young chefs open up the pop up restaurants and use the underused facilities and cutlery. Sometimes it can be experimental because the young chefs don’t want to risky in opening a real restaurant. De Certeau and Mayol (1998, p. 103) note that wee kends are the best days that festivals are organised. This could be prudent time for individuals to catch up for a meal in pop up restaurants. Analysis According to Mann (2011) pop up restaurants offer chefs the opportunity to experiment new dishes. This makes them famous and their business can be expanded and marketed by through the various social media networks. The risks that are feared by traditional restaurants in testing and experimenting new dishes is not experienced by pop up restaurants as they are short lived in a particular area.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The advantage of pop up restaurants as acknowledged by Mann (2011) is that they need no rent and employees need no pay benefits. This is because, they are temporal and the staff used in operation is limited or in other occasions non existent. Another likely advantage is that they need not develop a menu that is consistent and what is served every night is used as experimental (Mann 2011). Unlike restaurants there is no setting of the operational mechanisms and schedules. With the emerging trends where the urbanites dine out twice a week, the pop up restaurants act as an option for young couples. Diners can organize a pop up because the meals served are offered at affordable prices and the dishes are creatively prepared targeting the age group of 21 to 35 years. Pop ups restaurants are easy to operate although there is challenge of start up capital and the venues at sometimes. The reason why they are easy to operate is because they do not incur extra overhead costs. Pop up restaurants have offered jaded urban foodies the chance to change their eating experiences (Mann 2011), and allowed chefs utilize their innovative skills with least financial risk (Mintz 2011). According to Beardsworth and Keil (1997, p.100) the eating trends have changed and people are opting to eat out i n public places away from the family setting. Pine and Gilmore (1999, p.4) note that the changes in economic times and experiences has prompted changes in running of business. For instance, the traditional restaurants have been replaced by the pop up restaurants. Diagram 1. An example of interior of a pop up restaurant (Mintz 2011) Diagram 2. Pop up restaurant interior We will write a custom report sample on Report On Pop Up Restaurants specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The service area and kitchen of a pop up restaurant The setting of a pop up restaurants should be accommodative for a large number of people. However, the kitchen setting is usually small given that few chefs are available. Most of the venues where pop up restaurants are set are usually crowded with people. According to Baraban and Durocher (2010, p.165) a kitchen and its interior should ha ve a greater ambience and impact to the front part. Being clean, a kitchen can captivate and please customers hence increasing their numbers. On the other hand, the service stations of a restaurant should be located at the in the dinning area to allow easy customer services. Although they are usually temporal, pop up restaurants should be accommodative enough for many people. The kitchens should be clean, and fitted with exhaust heat hoods that remove extra heat and smoke (Baraban Durocher (2010, p.166). Some of the equipments found in a popup restaurant are Preparation Tables, Combination Oven, Hand wash Stations, Under counter Freezer, Double Bowl Sink and Wash Hand Basin, Six Burner Range and Oven, Upright Refrigerator, Mobile Canopy, Hot cupboard, Under counter Refrigerator, Racking, Gastronomy Trolley, and Counter Top Heated Gantry Sample diagram of a pop up restaurant kitchen interior Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sample of Service are with menu Sketch diagram of pop up restaurant interior Key: Hot cupboard Preparation Tables [a, b, c, d, e, f] tables and chairs Hand wash Stations feamle washrooms Male washrooms Under counter Refrigerator and Under counter Freezer Gastronomy Trolley Double Bowl Sink and Wash Hand Basin Six Burner Range and Oven Mobile Racking Upright Refrigerators Food stuff racks Cutlery and utensils cupboards Combination Ovens Service area of a pop up restaurant (Dicum 2010) Menu in pop restaurants The various dishes offered in pop up restaurants are usually innovative and affordable by most diners. The foods served in pop up restaurants are not common to the diners at normal occasions. Long (2004, p.22) note that people have the urge to taste new foods that are not served in their culture. The chefs have an understanding in terms of the food requirements the diners usually need. According to Barrows and Powers (2009, p.323) chef should be able to plan appetizing meals so as to captivate the customers. As it is the case with pop up restaurants the dishes are usually tantalizing, delicious and appetizing to the customers. As described by Barrows and Powers (2009, p.323) a chef should be the manager and be able to cook, buy and serve quality food. This case applies to chefs involved in pop up restaurants. The most reason given why people eat out is need for change and experience. In their survey Warde and Martens (2000, p.47 ) found that the reasons why people out are to get a new experience, have a break from cooking, socializing, partying, preventing hunger, liking a particular food and having a treat. All these reasons have encouraged the increase in the number of the pop up restaurants in the UK and other parts of the world. Eating different food out instead of the occasionally ate food bring in new and different experience all together (Warde Martens 2000, p. 47) The menu of a pop up restaurant is usually simple but innovative. The reason why the menu is kept simple is the aspect of the surrounding and the preferences of the people that may be hard to know. According to Paskin (2011) if a pop restaurant uses already existing kitchen brigade, modification is required if the foods being cooked and served are complex and hot. Paskin (2011) note that food served is the most important thing and it should meet the expectation of customers. Therefore, the dishes need to be delicious and tasteful. This markets a pop up restaurant and one can be hired for same if events or party is emerges. The other factor that is considered in pop up restaurant is the price of the menu. According to Paskin (2011) the prices need to the affordable and customer friendly as this captivates the client base. For example, if one is pooping at a festival at the local area, passersby may be tempted to pop up if the prices are friendly. The prices can depend on the season and the locality of the restaurant. Beardsworth and Keil (1997, p. 102) eating to gether in a new environment symbolizes togetherness. People can collectively meet in pop up restaurants and experiment new foods with their friends or relatives. Conclusion The pop up restaurants are temporal restaurants that are short lived from a day, a week or a month. In most case, they are set during the festive seasons and they are currently dominating the hospitality sector. Like the traditional restaurants, the pop up restaurants are licensed and recognized by the laws. They operate on low budgets and few employees. This makes them risk free to instances of bankruptcy and other related risks. They don’t require rent and payment of benefits to employees. The dishes prepared by the chefs are innovative and chefs don’t bother setting up a consistent menu. This is because the period of a pop up restaurant is a particular area is short-lived. The target group of these emerging trends is the professional urbanites of the age 21 to 35 years. The chefs’ experime nt with the food they cook and serve in the pop up restaurants. The interior of the pop up restaurants is well decorated and captivating to accommodate customers at the given timeframe. Marketing is achieved through the social net works that are also used in making reservations online. The reasons why most urbanites eat outside is to experience new change, break from cooking, socializing, partying preventing hunger liking a particular food and having a treat. The dishes are usually appetizing, captivating, and tantalizing. The prizes at the pop up restaurants are pocket friendly and affordable. Reference List Barrows, C. W., Powers, T. F., 2009, Introduction to management in the hospitality industry. Hoboken, N.J., John Wiley Sons. Baraban, R. S., Durocher, J. F., 2010, Successful restaurant design. Hoboken, N.J., John Wiley Sons. Beardsworth, A., Keil, T., 1997, Sociology on the Menu: An invitation to the study of food and society. New York: Rutledge. De Certeau, M., Giard, L. , Mayol, P., 1998, The practice of everyday life Volume 2: Living Cooking. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Dicum, G., 2010. At Pop-Ups, Chefs Take Chances With Little Risk. Web. Available from Long, L. M., 2004, Culinary Tourism. Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky. Mann, M., 2011. Pop-Up Restaurants Popping Up Around America. Web. Available from Mintz, J., 2011. Fly by night: Restaurants pop up, then disappear. Web. Available from: . Paskin, B., 2011. How to run a pop-up restaurant. Web. Available from Pine, B. J., Gilmore, J. H.,1999, The experience economy work is theatre every business a stage. Boston: Harvard Business School Press Warde, A., Martens, L., 2000, Eating Out: S ocial Differentiation, Consumption and Pleasure. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Susan B. Anthony, Womens Suffrage Activist

Susan B. Anthony, Women's Suffrage Activist Susan B. Anthony (February 15, 1820–March 13, 1906) was an activist, reformer, teacher, lecturer, and key spokesperson for the woman suffrage and womens rights movements of the 19th century. Together with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, her lifelong partner in political organizing, Anthony played a pivotal role in the activism that led to American women gaining the right to vote. Fast Facts: Susan B. Anthony Known For:  Key spokesperson for the 19th-century womens suffrage movement, probably the best-known of the suffragistsAlso Known As:  Susan Brownell AnthonyBorn:  February 15, 1820 in Adams, MassachusettsParents: Daniel Anthony and Lucy ReadDied:  March 13, 1906 in Rochester, New YorkEducation: A district school, a local school set up by her father, a Quaker boarding school in PhiladelphiaPublished Works:  History of Woman Suffrage, The Trial of Susan B. AnthonyAwards and Honors: The Susan B. Anthony dollarNotable Quote: It was we, the people; not we, the white male citizens; nor yet we, the male citizens; but we, the whole people, who formed the Union. Early Life Susan B. Anthony was born in Massachusetts on February 15, 1820. Her family moved to Battenville,  New York when Susan was 6 years old. She was raised as a Quaker. Her father Daniel was a farmer and then a cotton mill owner, while her mothers family had served in the American Revolution and worked in the Massachusetts government. Her family was politically engaged and her parents and several siblings were active in both the abolitionist and temperance movements. In her home, she met such towering figures of the abolitionist movement as Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison, who were friends with her father. Education Susan attended a district school, then a local school set up by her father, and then a Quaker boarding school near Philadelphia.  She had to leave school to work to assist her family after they suffered a steep financial loss. Anthony taught for a few years at a Quaker seminary. At the age of 26, she became a headmistress at the womens division of the Canajoharie Academy. She then worked briefly for the family farm before devoting herself full-time to activism, making her living off of speakers fees. Early Activism When she was 16 and 17 years old, Susan B. Anthony began circulating anti-slavery petitions.  She worked for a while as the New York state agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society. Like many other women abolitionists, she began to see that in the â€Å"aristocracy of sex†¦woman finds a political master in her father, husband, brother, son.† In 1848, the first Women’s Rights Convention in the U.S. was held at  Seneca Falls, New York, launching the womens suffrage movement. Susan B. Anthony was teaching and did not attend. A few years later in 1851, Susan B. Anthony met Elizabeth Cady Stanton, one of the Conventions organizers, when they both were attending an anti-slavery meeting also at Seneca Falls. Anthony was involved in the temperance movement at the time. Because Anthony was not permitted to speak at a general temperance meeting, she and Stanton formed the Womens New York State Temperance Society in 1852. Working With Elizabeth Cady Stanton Stanton and Anthony formed a 50-year lifelong working partnership. Stanton, married and a mother to a number of children, served as the writer and theorist of the two. Anthony, never married, was more often the organizer and the one who traveled, spoke widely, and bore the brunt of antagonistic public opinion. Anthony was good at strategy. Her discipline, energy, and ability to organize made her a strong and successful leader.  During some periods of her activism, Anthony gave as many as 75 to 100 speeches a year. Post War After the Civil War, Anthony was greatly discouraged that those working for suffrage for black Americans were willing to continue to exclude women from voting rights. She and Stanton thus became more focused on woman suffrage. She helped to found the American Equal Rights Association in 1866. In 1868, with Stanton as editor, Anthony became the publisher of The Revolution. Stanton and Anthony founded the National Woman Suffrage Association, larger than its rival American Woman Suffrage Association, associated with Lucy Stone. The two groups would eventually merge in 1890. Over her long career, Anthony appeared before every Congress between 1869 and 1906 on behalf of women’s suffrage. Working for Womens Rights Other Than Suffrage Susan B. Anthony advocated for womens rights on other fronts besides suffrage. These new rights included the right of a woman to divorce an abusive husband, the right to have guardianship of her children, and the right for women to be paid equal to men. Her advocacy contributed to the 1860 passage of the Married Womens Property Act, which gave married women the right to own separate property, enter into contracts, and be joint guardians of their children. Much of this bill was unfortunately rolled back after the Civil War. Test Vote In 1872, in an attempt to claim that the constitution already permitted women to vote, Susan B. Anthony cast a test vote in Rochester, New York, in the presidential election. With a group of 14 other women in Rochester, New York, she registered to vote at a local barbershop, part of the New Departure strategy of the woman suffrage movement. On November 28, the 15 women and the registrars were arrested. Anthony contended that women already had the constitutional right to vote. The court disagreed in  United States v. Susan B. Anthony. She was found guilty, though she refused to pay the resulting fine (and no attempt was made to force her to do so). Abortion Stance In her writings, Susan B. Anthony occasionally mentioned abortion. She opposed abortion, which at the time was an unsafe medical procedure for women, endangering their health and life. She blamed men, laws, and the double standard for driving women to abortion because they had no other options. When a woman destroys the life of her unborn child, it is a sign that, by education or circumstances, she has been greatly wronged, she wrote in 1869. Anthony believed, as did many of the feminists of her era, that only the achievement of womens equality and freedom would end the need for abortion. Anthony used her anti-abortion writings as yet another argument for womens rights. Controversial Views Some of Susan B. Anthonys writings could be considered racist by todays standards, particularly her writings from the period when she was angry that the 15th Amendment had written the word male into the constitution for the first time in permitting suffrage for freedmen. She sometimes argued that educated white women would be better voters than ignorant black men or immigrant men. In the late 1860s, she even portrayed the vote of freedmen as threatening the safety of white women. George Francis Train, whose capital helped launch Anthony and Stantons The Revolution newspaper, was a noted racist. Later Years In her later years, Susan B. Anthony worked closely with Carrie Chapman Catt. Anthony retired from active leadership of the suffrage movement in 1900 and turned over the presidency of the NAWSA to Catt. She worked with Stanton and Mathilda Gage on what would eventually be the six-volume History of Woman Suffrage. By the time she was 80 years old, even though woman suffrage was far from won, Anthony was acknowledged as an important public figure. Out of respect, President William McKinley  invited her to celebrate her birthday at the White House. She also met with President Theodore Roosevelt to argue that a suffrage amendment be submitted to Congress. Death A few months before her death in 1906, Susan B. Anthony delivered her Failure Is Impossible speech at her 86th birthday celebration in Washington, D.C. She died of heart failure and pneumonia at home in Rochester, New York. Legacy Susan B. Anthony died 14 years before all U.S. women won the right to vote with the 1920 passage of the 19th  Amendment. Although she did not live to see womens suffrage achieved across the entire United States, Susan B. Anthony was a key worker in laying the groundwork for this change. And she did live to witness the sea change in attitudes that was requisite for universal suffrage. In 1979, Susan B. Anthonys image was chosen for the new dollar coin, making her the first woman to be depicted on U.S. currency. The size of the dollar was, however, close to that of the quarter, and the Anthony dollar never became very popular. In 1999 the U.S. government announced the replacement of the Susan B. Anthony dollar with one featuring the image of Sacagawea. Sources Anthony, Susan B.  The Trial of Susan B. Anthony.  Humanity Books, 2003.Hayward, Nancy. â€Å"Susan B. Anthony.† National Women’s History Museum, 2017.Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, Ann De Gordon, and Susan B. Anthony.  Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony: In the School of Anti-Slavery, 1840-1866. Rutgers University Press, 1997.Ward, Geoffery C. and Ken Burns.  Not For Ourselves Alone: The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. Knopf, 2001.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Critical analysis report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Critical analysis report - Essay Example In case comparison of News; Google offers facility to present our news website for analysis and we are able to offer the news directory to all the contents on website intended for Google to spider. However Bing does not offer such capabilities. As far as the speed of searching is concerned, we will find that Google is on the peak while Bing has a second place. Then in case of high usage of search engines all through the world Google is on the top and Bing gets second place. Example Image is listed below: (Dunn, 2010) and (randfish, 2010) Figure 1-Google Vs Bing –Number of Results Analysis: Source On the other hand Bing permits public allocation for a number of outcomes or results through search results. However Google does not offer such capabilities. After that Bing presents foretaste of the document that is like another search engine known as However Google does not present such beneficial capabilities. Then i n case of online video playback Bing offers video that can be viewed online inside the previews, however Google does not offer such video playback capabilities (Dunn, 2010) and (randfish, 2010). ... An example of such website is presented below: (ZambaGrafix, 2002) Figure 3- Feedback Source Bulletin boards/ discussion forums Another well known interactivity feature of the website is the Bulletin boards/ discussion forums. These offer fundamental places where people are able to put information request queries as well as respond to further providers on line (ZambaGrafix, 2002). Password protected private areas For effective website usage interactivity feature like Password protected private areas is really essential. In this scenario this interactivity feature offers the facility of protection that can comprise varying levels of safety and produced in dissimilar manners, through matching dissimilarities in expenditures of implementation. It as well depends on our server/ISP features. Example of such features is listed below: (ZambaGrafix, 2002) Figure 5- Password protected private areas Source http://www Website search engine This is a very important interactivity feature that offers website user a liberty and easiness regarding better contents searching and visiting. Example of such feature is listed below: (ZambaGrafix, 2002) Figure 6- Website search engine Source- Question No 3 This section will discuss and analyze some of the highly dangerous website security/vulnerability issues, these issues are listed below: SQL Injection SQL injection is about the incorporation of SQL meta-characters in website client input parts, for instance attacker's questions are performed through the database located at the back-end. Generally, website attackers will make a

Friday, October 18, 2019

Economic Growth in Deficit Crisis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 25

Economic Growth in Deficit Crisis - Essay Example The collapse of the major financial intermediary followed by the improper functioning of the financial market is identified to be the major blow to the economic situation that is prevailing within the nation (Tiraboschi, 2012). With the massive blow on the financial market, there has been an enormous stress, which was experienced by the economy and was identified to be the major reason of the economic crisis and financial turmoil. The impact made its first and foremost effect on the industries directly linked with the banking sector. This economic disruption led to a series of events affecting the economy, nation as well as the people associated with the nation (Tiraboschi, 2012). In this regard, the paper intends to elaborate on a specific issue that was faced due to the crisis, which could be referred to as employment status. The political and the social framework were largely affected by the crisis-situation which has been duly analysed to develop a transparent and better understanding of the employment status. The British Labour Law dates back to the initial decades of the 20th century. The development of the bill that was associated with the employment law was integrated in the year 1923. This acted as a major milestone and altered the British law for employment. Since its inceptions in the second and the third decades of the 20th century, there have been a considerable number of reforms that were initiated within the initial principles on which the laws were framed. However, there are certain blockages that have made the researchers and decision-makers look into the issues associated with the needs of alteration within the existing legal system and make it adept for the current times (Dukes, 2014).

Business Study Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Business Study - Assignment Example Swiss Classic draws inspiration from the ancient Swiss culinary which is known as the maker of the best chocolate in the world. The product will come in different shapes and sizes according to the preference of the customer. The Chocolate House will also offer customized packaging which allows the buyers to choose from brown and gold packages. Swiss Classic's price will range from 10 for three small chocolates to 30 for three large ones. Aside from being sold in company-owned retail outlets, Swiss Classic can also be delivered for an additional charge and can be bundled with wine, bouquets and cards when used as gifts. This promotional objective allows the firm to provide value to its customers thereby ensuring the steady inflow of sales. Because the chocolate is popular and widely consumed by the UK market, The Chocolate House's main task is to capture the appropriate niche for its products. Demand creation enables the company and the product Swiss Classic to succeed and even merely survive in the industry. Inadequate demand in the long run will force the company to withdraw and close down. Thus, this objective is pivotal in the survival of the business organization. Creating Image This promotional objective allows the firm to differentiate itself among the numerous competitors in the industry. By occupying a definite position in the customers' minds, The Chocolate House be assured of strong brand equity and recall from its market. The firm will do this by emphasizing on product quality, ensuring freshness through the use of cocoa butter instead of vegetable fat, pricing higher than its competitors, delivering excellent customer service, and designing its outlets as a place for indulgence. Since The Chocolate House is competing through a differentiation strategy, image creation is important in order to stress its uniqueness. The company should always stress what separates it from competitors that customers should patronize its products. If this is not pursued, it might end up being one of the others or worse, it might not be able to win any customer at all. Increasing Sales This promotional objective allows the firm to ensure growth within its market. The Chocolate House will use intensive marketing effort like advertisement and promotions in order to penetrate the UK market and capture higher shares. Through the years, it is the general goal of a firm to grow its market share and consequently its sales. Growth in sales signals the company's efficiency and success in its promotional efforts and overall strategic management. Increasing Profits This promotional objective allows the firm to achieve its goal of maximizing shareholder value. Increasing profits will be ensured through the efficient allocation of promotional budget. The company will also regularly review its pricing strategy in order to ensure maximum profitability. Increasing profits even though not a

Thursday, October 17, 2019

The American Dream Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 3

The American Dream - Essay Example Activists like Martin Luther King also called for freedom that was more directed at the black Americans but not the whole America population. The variations listed shows that the dream is somehow different to the people (Kelly 20). Although the American dream is unique and it means different to various individuals, achieving it is completely a hard and demanding task. One of the challenges that make achieving the dream hard is the fact that the opportunities that exist in the country are hidden and they require a combination of knowledge and wisdom to access. Like in an example, there are limited job opportunities that call for high qualifications while majority of the individuals do not meet the requirements (Horswell 43) Again, most of the Americans still have a strong believe that their problems solution lies in the hands of the government and that big businesses will boost their economic growth without personal efforts, thus making it hard to achieve the American dream (Kochan 63). Finally, the American dream tries to inspire hopes and optimism to the American people that are not accompanied by the appropriate resource to achieve. The result of this is that most of the people come up with big dreams forget ting the fact that, to meet these dreams, there are infrastructure needed, resource mobilization and improvement that needs to be put into place. To achieve the improvements, people need to be engaged in well-paying jobs, have quality education and work hard which is not the case in the country (Kelly 21). The small business ventures are the spine of the economy of the U.S because it provides employment for tens of millions of the Americans. The businesses create most of the jobs that people in the U.S are engaged in. It, therefore, gets important for the government to come up with an adequate way of financing and giving credit to the small business to spur manufacturing and the expansion of the businesses (Ringer 80). The nature

Law Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Law - Assignment Example so have the expertise to interpret laws and the constitution, but both have vested interests and citizens do not stand a chance against the creator and the enforcer of the law. Only the Supreme Court can objectively assess the constitutionality of laws or government actions. Indictment and information both refer to the written instrument which formally charges an accused with an offense. Both are required to state with clarity the acts and circumstances that constitute the offense as defined by law. An indictment is returned only by a grand jury while in the case of information, the authority is with the Department of Justice. As such, an indictment states that â€Å"the grand jury charges† while an information begins with, "The United States of America, acting through its attorneys, charges". If I were charged with a criminal case, I would prefer an information over an indictment because in an information, I will have the chance of entering into a plea agreement with the prosecution. As an accused, I have the right to waive an indictment and opt for an information instead. A reasonable suspicion is basically an educated guess used by the police to frisk or detain a person. If the police suspects that a person is about to commit or has committed a crime, he can stop, frisk and detain the person provided that his suspicion has some valid and reasonable grounds. And these grounds must be supported by facts or circumstances that point to such facts. A probable cause is the requirement in order to carry out a valid and legal arrest or search. Before issuing a search warrant or a warrant of arrest, the police must convince the judge that a probable cause exists that the person to be arrested has committed the crime or that the objects they are looking for are at the premises to be searched. In the case of warrantless arrest and search, the police officer may base the existence of probable cause on the reliable and available information that they have at that

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

The American Dream Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 3

The American Dream - Essay Example Activists like Martin Luther King also called for freedom that was more directed at the black Americans but not the whole America population. The variations listed shows that the dream is somehow different to the people (Kelly 20). Although the American dream is unique and it means different to various individuals, achieving it is completely a hard and demanding task. One of the challenges that make achieving the dream hard is the fact that the opportunities that exist in the country are hidden and they require a combination of knowledge and wisdom to access. Like in an example, there are limited job opportunities that call for high qualifications while majority of the individuals do not meet the requirements (Horswell 43) Again, most of the Americans still have a strong believe that their problems solution lies in the hands of the government and that big businesses will boost their economic growth without personal efforts, thus making it hard to achieve the American dream (Kochan 63). Finally, the American dream tries to inspire hopes and optimism to the American people that are not accompanied by the appropriate resource to achieve. The result of this is that most of the people come up with big dreams forget ting the fact that, to meet these dreams, there are infrastructure needed, resource mobilization and improvement that needs to be put into place. To achieve the improvements, people need to be engaged in well-paying jobs, have quality education and work hard which is not the case in the country (Kelly 21). The small business ventures are the spine of the economy of the U.S because it provides employment for tens of millions of the Americans. The businesses create most of the jobs that people in the U.S are engaged in. It, therefore, gets important for the government to come up with an adequate way of financing and giving credit to the small business to spur manufacturing and the expansion of the businesses (Ringer 80). The nature

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Landscape and map Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Landscape and map - Essay Example It does not display all the details of objects on the ground, it only shows and outlines of such objects. They both give information of a particular area (Meinig 33-48). A landscape and map are similar in that they display a representation, or rather they are both presented on a piece of paper or board, they are both visual representation (Berger 7-11). They are used to summarize information for easy and quick reference. Moreover, maps and the landscapes might be used by planners to plan specific areas properly. Maps and landscapes are different in that the maps are used and made for different purposes unlike the landscape which their purpose is to represent visible features of an area or land (Kaplan & White 69). A map generally displays only those geographies required for a specific location. Additionally, maps show much information unlike the landscape that shows only the details of the restricted area. Travellers use maps to find their way whereas a landscape gives the travellers the overview on an area. Maps can calculate the distance from one place to another while as the landscapes only shows the general view. Maps are used to locate places on the earth surface. Maps also can be used to compare the sizes and the shapes of different lands and water masses. The maps provide detailed information about an area while as a landscape just hints on the background (Tyner 6). However, a landscape helps improve the aesthetic appearance of the field by planting shrubs or trees, changing the land s contours or adding ornamental features. A landscape process can be defined as a process that occurs in a spatial domain (p. 69). The landscape process is primarily propagated across the land surface. It not only serves to structure but also, it is influenced by the spatial structure of the ecosystems; and whose impact on the spatial pattern is dependent to a degree upon the landscape structure is either greater or lesser (Kaplan & White

Monday, October 14, 2019

To what extent Essay Example for Free

To what extent Essay For Romans, religion and politics were inseparable, for example, priests were always senators. Augustus needed to be seen as an emperor if he wanted to be one, he used religion to do this; a religious figure would never have been challenged, they were respected and obeyed. When Augustus became pontifex maximus in 12 BC he became, not only the saecular head of the Roman Empire, but the religious leader as well. Augustus used religion to reorganise the state, establish his own legislations and revive old festivals and ceremonies. However, although the advantages to himself were clear, he needed to be aware of Caesar’s fate and not offend tradition. Augustus knew that he had to be very careful about how he went about things in Rome but, in the East, it was a lot more acceptable as the people were already used to worshipping their leaders. If he could be worshipped in the East first, it may make it easier to be worshipped in Rome itself later on. In private it suited Augustus to be integrated with state religion, as demonstrated in the Res Gestae; â€Å"I was pontifex maximus, augur, quindecemviri sacris faciundis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . However, in public Augustus had to appear respectful of traditional practice, as shown on the Ara Pacis. After his death Augustus could be worshipped with no issues, during his lifetime however, it was in no way acceptable. Augustus had to resist the creation of an imperial cult during his lifetime to avoid losing all popular support and ending in the same way as his predecessor did. This said, the creation of an imperial cult, if successful, would bring together the disparate provinces that he governed, bringing not only power but also prestige. An imperial cult was the mass veneration of not only Augustus’ genius, but that of his family and successors. Being a member of the Julian line, he already had some claim to a link with the Gods. Augustus’ Prima Porta, fashioned in a Hellenistic style, not only shows his pietas, but his link with the God of Love, Venus. Clinging to his body is cupid riding a dolphin; as cupid is the sibling of Aenus who founded the Julian line, the direct message that he is involved with the Gods is already being propagated. Equally, the fact that Caesar had been made a deity, established the notion that he was a semi-deity in the minds of many Romans. In the Mediterranean world, Augustus’ provinces were singular in that the citizens of Rome would have regarded treating your ruler as a deity as sacrilegious and immoral. Conversely, in the East, this was not only acceptable, but also demanded. Ptolemaic Egypt was cult-like and worshipped pharaohs as Gods. Due to heterogeneous territories, religion was seen as a uniting factor for rulers to forge links between the populace and themselves. The idea of Augustus openly declaring himself as a deity during his lifetime was an impossibility that would have led to exile or assassination. However, just as Caesar had supposedly risen to the heavens to be immortalised as a deity after his death, he too could be worshipped like this. The evidence of this is demonstrated by the construction of various temples built to him after his death in AD 14; for example, the Temple to Divus Augustus is shown on the Denarius of AD 158. Moreover, Suetonius’s Life of Augustus shows us ways in which, rather than being an innovator of a new imperial cult, Augustus actually restored traditional religious practices. By appearing to ‘buy into’ the conservatism of Roman religion, Augustus would have pleased the tradionalist majority and allowed his continuing expansionist military effort and transgression of the cursus honourum, without worry of religious misdemeanour. Suetonius describes his burning of â€Å"anonymous or unrespected authors† keeping only the sibylline books. He also revived certain rites such as the Augury of Safety, the flamen dialis, the Lupercalia, the Saecular Games and the Compitalia. Additionally, he extended the number and prestige of priesthoods. This demonstrated the difference between Augustus’ private and public goals; whereas privately he wished to integrate himself into state religion, publically he had to show piety and respect towards tradition. As previously noted, in the Res Gestae, Augustus lists his religious powers and titles; considering that the Res Gestae was effectively an autobiography, it can be inferred that this was received positively as he was satisfied to publish this on stele, it is also evident that the Res Gestae was propaganda designed to influence and so can not be deemed as a reliable, nor objective source. Prompting the creation of an imperial cult would have enshrined Augustus as a deity, given him infinite power to develop his empire and secured his legacy forever. However, it was vital that he treaded the delicate line between paying lip service to Roman conservatism whilst at the same time, attempting to set himself above, and apart from, the average Roman politician. Associating himself with Roman deities was an ideal way of achieving this goal and there is a huge range of evidence that he did very little to resist this. Indeed, it is quite possible that he actually endorsed it. Suetonius describes how he renamed the month Sextilis, to August and therefore â€Å"put†¦ straight† the calendar. Equally, the Horologium Augusti in the Campus Martius, an immense sundial drew attention to Augustus in a manner unavailable to other Romans. The Serviri Augustutales at Narbo of AD 12-13 was altar dedicated to Augustus. It proclaimed that the Julian ancestral colony of Narbo Martinius had â€Å"bound themselves to worship his divinity for ever†. Additionally, the Temple of Augustus at Pula (built between 2 BC and AD 14) and the Temple of Augustus at Tarraco were also built. The Temple of Augustus at Pula had a dedication reading â€Å"Roma and Augustus Caesar, son of deity, father of the fatherland† indicating that the temple was primarily dedicated to the goddess Roma, the personification of Rome, making himself a secondary figure to the City in order to not be seen to be encouraging the creation of an imperial cult. It could be argued that, if Augustus was genuinely against the worship of himself and his family, he would have prevented provincials from establishing temples in his name despite the fact that the Hellenistic practice of ruler-worship was well established in certain provinces. However, the evidence suggests that this was not the case as Augustus did little to nothing to prevent the construction of such temples. Indeed, Augustus, upon hearing that the people of Tarraco had reported a palm tree had grown on an altar to him, is recorded by Quintilian to have responded, â€Å"That shows how often you light a fire there†. This clearly opposes the view that he shrinked from such worship as it suggests he encouraged it. However, as Quintilian wrote this decades after the event may have happened, the reliability of this source must be questioned. Furthermore, the aureus of 19 BC depicts the Altar of Fortuna Redux, an altar at the Porta Capena to the Home-bringer, praising her for Augustus’ safe return. This was also the site of the festival of Augustalia; the act of having sacred festivals dedicated to you was naturally a privilege usually reserved to the Gods. Furthermore, the close proximity of Temple of Apollo Palatinus with Augustus’ house blurred the lines between his numen and his power as they came together as an imperial residence. The Hymn of the Salii, or Carmen Saeculare was the song of the ‘leaping priests’ of Mars, keepers of the ancilia and undoubtedly revered positions. The fact that they added his name to this god-praising song was highly unconventional and a bold move if Augustus had ordered this. Augustus evidently sponsored Augustan Literature, through Maecenus’ patronage of several poets. There are many clear examples of Augustus either being associated with the Gods in literature, or being portrayed as god himself. There is no doubt that Augustus knew about these comparisons prior to recital or publication and therefore encouraged these attempts to link himself with deities. Virgil’s Aeneid is the prime example of this; the poem depicts Augustus descending from heaven with â€Å"Iulus†, loaded with the wealth of Egypt of the â€Å"Orient’s spoils† and that â€Å"he too shall be called upon in prayer†. To add to this emphasis of his connection with Iulus, the building of the Temple to Divus Julius in the Forum Romanum and the Temple to Mars Ultor in the forum of Augustus both underline his connection to the semi-deity Caesar through his completion of filial duty. Horace’s Odes 1. 2 similarly shows Augutus as the gods’ ‘right hand man’. Horace describes the moral decline and religious neglect of the period of civil war and strife and Augustus is called forth to atone for previous sins and to â€Å"aid the crumbling Empire†. Such glowing accounts of Augutus can be explained as many of the poets were convalescing from lost estates from civil war times and, through indirect sponsorship from Augustus, were expected to translate underlying messages of the regime into poetry. Naturally, this kind of blatant worshiping was only acceptable in the abstract medium of poetry, as poetry was known to exaggerate reality and stretch any possible truth. Overall, the weight of evidence tends to suggest that Augustus did not try particularly hard to resist the creation of an imperial cult during his lifetime. Although he showed piety and respect to tradition throughout his reign, his sanctioning and, often encouragement, of provincials worshipping him demonstrated that he wished to be classed as a divine being as it meant that he would have gained all possible power. The creation of an imperial cult resulted in an almost tyrannical rule, where Augustus could not be questioned.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Domestic Violence Against Asian Women Social Work Essay

Domestic Violence Against Asian Women Social Work Essay This report is based on a Chief Executive Officer with unlimited budget to improve mental health services in London Borough of Ealing. The following neighbourhood study will focus on a proposal for change to improve services. It will focus on the changes necessary in the  services provided for Asian Women experiencing domestic violence with mental health issues. An understanding of social and cultural diversity will be discussed and their impact on healthcare. In addition, these issues will be compared to the London borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. Domestic violence has come to the forefront as an important issue that affect many people in our society. DH, (2005) define domestic violence as any violence, abuse or threatening behaviour between current or former partners. It stipulate that any attempt to exercise control over an intimate partner or family members regardless of gender, sexuality constitutes domestic violence; the violence can include physical, psychological, sexual, financial and emotional abuse. Domestic violence can also include honour base violence, female genital mutilation and force marriages. According to Home Office, (2004), women are more likely to become victim of domestic violence than men; children are also affected and can be traumatised by the incidences they have seen. Research has shown that one in four women experience domestic violence over their lifetime and one in ten women experience it annually and 32% of children (Walby and Allen, 2004). Williamson, (2000) outlined that ethnic minority women are well known to be victims of domestic violence particularly Asians. However (DH, 2005) highlighted that the affects of domestic violence can result in women experiencing isolation, loss of job and income, low self esteem and self worth; It can lead to mental health issues in women causing the victims to suffer from mental health problems including, anxiety disorder, eating disorder, depression and self harm which could lead to suicide. Experience of domestic violence can also exacerbate an existing mental health condition. Womensaid, (2009) highlighted that a large number of women accessing mental health services have experienced domestic violence, and at least 20% of service users are still experiencing the abuse. It further suggests that 50% of Asian women who have attempted suicide or self harm are survivors of domestic violence. The London Borough of Ealing consists of 23 wards. It is the third largest borough in London with a population of 300,948 of which 151,200 of the residents are females and 22,200 are of Asian background (Neighbourhood statistics, 2006). When compared to Hammersmith and Fulham borough, they have a population of 165,242 Nationally Domestic Violent rate for Asian women. However, 58% of these women view themselves to be white British and only 25% declares to be Asians (Ealing Council, 2009) (appendix 1). The motivation for this proposed change is necessary as services for ethnic minority women experiencing domestic violence in various areas in the country are under-funded or non-existence (Williamson, 2000). Mainstreaming Gender and Womens Mental Health (DH, 2002) identify experiences of violence and abuse as a core theme in womens mental health difficulties. Todays mental health system manages diagnosis and accepts long-term disability consequently offering a label as an explanation for suffering instead of permitting service users to share their stories, experiences and their feelings. The level of domestic violence amongst women has increased significantly in Ealing Borough. Recent figures revealed that Ealing is the ninth highest borough for reporting domestic violence between April 2007 to January 2008 Ealing Council (2009). It was highlighted that 41% of reported cases were of white European whereas the second highest reported cases were from Asian background (see appendix 3). It was also suggested that domestic violence is the highest crime reported nationally to the police, and 89% of domestic violence victims are women (Ealing Council, 2009). The cost of domestic violence on the UK economy is enormous; recent figures reported to be  £23 billion annually for the UK and  £280 million for London Borough of Ealing respectively (Ealing Council, 2009). Furthermore, it is estimated that on average women are assaulted 35 times before they report to the police however; most women do not report and suffer in silence. This may be due to the psychological state known as battered women syndrome identified by (Walker, 2000) in which the victim feels powerless to change the situation. Baggot (2004) argued that ethnic minority groups are faced with poorer health conditions than the rest of the population; people from certain ethnic background may be denied timely access to healthcare or offered lower standards of care than the rest of the population. 55% of Ealings population is predominately ethnic minority groups. The total South Asian population in Ealing is 41% compared to 24.7% in the borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. This significant difference in ethnic profile has a key impact on the overall health of the community. According to Kandola Fullerton (1998), diversity is the difference in ethnic origin, religion and other factors which cause people to have different perspectives on the same set of facts or issues. The culture amongst Asian communities makes it difficult for married women to disclose that they are victims of domestic violence; breakdown of marriages is often seen as the womens fault hence they are likely to be rejected by family members and their community. It is culturally accepted that women should be abuse consequently becoming victims of domestic violence. Additionally, Some Asian women may be subject to immigration control. This can influence their decision to take action against their husbands because of deportation from the UK. Moreover, most of these women do not speak English and finds it difficult to communicate. Womens National Commission, (2009) report outlined that many of the victims are of insecure immigration status, having limited leave or no leave to remain within the country and are therefore subject to no recourse to public funds therefore are unable to obtain state benefits, hence limiting their access to services, social housing, legal advice and support. Ealing Council, (2009) report, emphasised that currently Ealing has only two organizations offering emergency accommodation services. These services are limited as there are only eighteen adult bed places, the places available for counselling and advocacy services do not have adequate staff to provide support to accommodate the number of victims identified by the Council. (WHO, (1997) cited in DH, (2006) states that violence against women is a public health issue which could be prevented. The Department of Health published a manual aimed at healthcare professionals in 2000 who contacted victims of domestic violence; the purpose was to focus on the need to treat vulnerable women with compassionate and holistic approach. These opinions were echoed by the participants of two surveys who identified the flaws in their treatment as being lack of advocacy and follow up interventions. An individuals ethnicity and cultural group remain useful points for understanding the motives behind domestic violence and the impact it has on their mental health. It can be argued that attending to the specific needs and conditions of Asian women by providing integrated culturally and gender-sensitive services highlights good practice. Hence, it becomes important that the individuals perceptions of self care are identified in the context of their culture. Addressing issues of domestic violence in relation to mental health, health inequalities and other social problems which lead most women to social disadvantages would be easily addressed. APPENDIX 1 The table below gives an indication of the different offences in the borough of Ealing and the UK National Average. Of the offences committed violence against the person is the highest in the borough. Ealing Council English Average Population 305,000 Households 121,000 Violence against the person 25.0 15.0 Sexual offences 1.0 0.9 Robbery offences 4.4 1.0 Burglary dwelling offences 9.1 4.3 Theft of a motor vehicle offences 3.4 2.3 Theft from a vehicle offences 11.6 6.3 Source: Ealing Council, (2009). APPENDIX 2 The diagram below gives an analytical breakdown of ethnicity for domestic violence victims in the Borough Ealing. It shows that 41% were of white European origin. The highest of all the ethnic groups as defined by police were those of Asian backgrounds at 28% and thirdly Afro-Caribbean groups with 22%.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Free Essays - Anne Frank :: Anne Frank

The Franks were your general German family and Anne was your general German girl. This family of four lived in Germany, Mr. Frank was an average business man, Mrs. Frank was an average mother and Margot and Anne were average students. The one thing that made them different in the eyes of Hitler, was the fact that they were Jewish. Once Hitler rose to power, the Franks fled to Holland, where the hoped to be safe from the Jewish-blood thirsty Nazis, they went on with their normal lives, until once again Hitler took over. This caused the Franks to flee again, only this time they would be in hiding. A plan was devised; the Franks would stay in an abandoned section of the Kraler office building, along with another family of three: the Van Daans. The Franks set off for their new "home" before the Van Daans. They had to carry with them things that would last for as far as they knew, years. Anne took with her two vests, three pairs of pants, a dress and skirt, jacket, summer coat, shoes, two pairs of stockings, a cap and a scarf. During the journey through the streets, non-jews looked at them with pity and sorrow, they knew that there was nothing they could do to help them, no rides, no food, no help period. Once they arrived to what they called, the "Secret Annexe" they set their things in their rooms. Anne decorated her wall with all of her favorite actors and actresses. About a week later the Van Daans joined them, Mrs. Van Daan brought with her, her "chamber" Mr. Van Daan brought a folding tea table and Peter brought his cat Mouschi. Each of them had their own individual personality, Mr. Van Daan, was pretty mellow with most of the Franks, especially Margot, but often had a word or two to say about Anne, he didn't like her constant chattering. Mrs. Van Daan was loud and flirtatious, constantly pestering people and never willing to do her part of the work around the Annexe. Then there's Peter, the quiet, dull and boring one. At first Anne cannot stand Peter's laziness, but she later grows quite fond of him. As time goes on, they each get to know each other a little better, Miep brings them news from the outside world as often as she can along with some small amounts of rations. Free Essays - Anne Frank :: Anne Frank The Franks were your general German family and Anne was your general German girl. This family of four lived in Germany, Mr. Frank was an average business man, Mrs. Frank was an average mother and Margot and Anne were average students. The one thing that made them different in the eyes of Hitler, was the fact that they were Jewish. Once Hitler rose to power, the Franks fled to Holland, where the hoped to be safe from the Jewish-blood thirsty Nazis, they went on with their normal lives, until once again Hitler took over. This caused the Franks to flee again, only this time they would be in hiding. A plan was devised; the Franks would stay in an abandoned section of the Kraler office building, along with another family of three: the Van Daans. The Franks set off for their new "home" before the Van Daans. They had to carry with them things that would last for as far as they knew, years. Anne took with her two vests, three pairs of pants, a dress and skirt, jacket, summer coat, shoes, two pairs of stockings, a cap and a scarf. During the journey through the streets, non-jews looked at them with pity and sorrow, they knew that there was nothing they could do to help them, no rides, no food, no help period. Once they arrived to what they called, the "Secret Annexe" they set their things in their rooms. Anne decorated her wall with all of her favorite actors and actresses. About a week later the Van Daans joined them, Mrs. Van Daan brought with her, her "chamber" Mr. Van Daan brought a folding tea table and Peter brought his cat Mouschi. Each of them had their own individual personality, Mr. Van Daan, was pretty mellow with most of the Franks, especially Margot, but often had a word or two to say about Anne, he didn't like her constant chattering. Mrs. Van Daan was loud and flirtatious, constantly pestering people and never willing to do her part of the work around the Annexe. Then there's Peter, the quiet, dull and boring one. At first Anne cannot stand Peter's laziness, but she later grows quite fond of him. As time goes on, they each get to know each other a little better, Miep brings them news from the outside world as often as she can along with some small amounts of rations.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Middleware Essay

What is middleware? The term middleware is defined by one’s point of view. It is used to describe a broad array of tools and data that help applications use networked resources and services. Some tools, such as authentication and directories, are in all categorizations. Other services, such as coscheduling of networked resources, secure multicast, object brokering and messaging, are the major middleware interests of particular communities, such as scientific researchers and business systems vendors. One definition that reflects this breadth of meaning is â€Å"Middleware is the intersection of the stuff that network engineers don’t want to do with the stuff that applications developers don’t want to do. † Why is middleware important? Middleware has emerged as a critical second level of an enterprise IT infrastructure, sitting on top of the network level. The need for middleware stems from the increasing growth in the number of applications, in the customizations within those applications and the number of locations in our environments; these and other factors now require that a set of core data and services be moved from their multiple instances into a centralized institutional offering. This central provision of service eases application development, increases robustness, assists data management, and provides overall operating efficiencies. Okay, so it is important. Lots of things are these days. Why is it urgent? There are several drivers bringing middleware to campus; Advanced scientific computing environments such as PACI are placing requirements on campus researchers for middleware services such as authentication and directories. Library projects such as the UCOP/Columbia certificate project will be extending across a broader higher ed community . The Federal government is preparing requirements for digital signatures for student loan forms. New versions of software, such as Windows 2000, come with the tools to build ad hoc middleware components. What is urgent is that the campus builds a coherent infrastructure to respond to these drivers. What makes the higher ed and research communities distinctive in its need for middleware? Many companies and other communities of interest are rapidly understanding the importance of middleware to their missions and are proceeding with development. Higher education faces unique technical and policy issues in its deployment. Technical issues include the mobility of students, the diversity of equipment, and advanced application requirements. Policy issues include ownership of data, FERPA and other public records issues, and extended collaborative relationships. Together these considerations make the middleware deployment significantly harder within higher education. When middleware becomes part of the IT environment, how critical will a robust infrastructure be? The middleware components of the future IT environment will be every bit as critical as the underlying network infrastructure, requiring 7Ãâ€"24 service, high-performance, and appropriate redundancy. Directory services will be receive millions of hits per day; identifiers will have explicit control mechanisms; attribute services will be invoked by almost every application on campus; lawyers will place stringent operational constraints on security services. Is middleware a centralized or distributed issue on campus? It is both. Like network services on campus, there is a need for a consistent infrastructure across campus that is best provisioned centrally. At the same time, much of the contents of this infrastructure are best maintained by the individuals themselves and their departments. The trick is to create a centrally coordinated service that provides tools and authority for distributed management of the contents. Aren’t we going to get middleware from the commercial marketplace? It is certainly the case that most basic middleware products that higher education will deploy commercial products, from broad software companies such as Microsoft and Novell, and from specific product providers such as Netscape, HP, and ATT. However a number of distinctive characteristics of the higher ed community create design considerations that in turn cause complex implementations. In addition, the research part of the academic enterprise needs additional discipline-specific middleware that is likely not going to attract a commercial interest. Finally, the collaborative nature of higher education suggest interoperability issues that must be addressed within the community. What kind of investments will campuses need to make? Like networking, middleware will require considerable commitments of time and money. However, the types of costs are different. Networking has required large sums of capital (for fiber, routers, switches, etc. ) and considerable operating costs (for external access, maintenance, etc. ) Personnel costs have been relatively modest. For middleware, the hardware costs (servers, readers, etc. are likely to be relatively low. Software costs are unclear now, but there are clearly considerable expenses in building bridges to legacy systems and evolving middleware-enabled applications. Unlike networking, there is a second major cost component in middleware – process time. A campus must develop consensus and support for the need for middleware, clarify data ownership and management issues, specify relationships among individuals, groups and information technology objects, establish legal agreements and change the way that information is managed on the campus. How does the Internet2 Middleware Initiative intend to address these needs? Efforts will focus on advancing the level of middleware within higher education through a set of related activities, including fostering technical standards, aggregating and disseminating technical design and implementation strategies, fostering opportunities for vendors and Internet2 members to shape and deploy products, and integrating efforts with particular scientific and research communities. What should campuses be doing now? It is not to early for campuses to begin the processes that address the â€Å"policy-side† of the challenge, building awareness about the need for middleware, identifying key constituencies that will be involved in the process, and taking basic inventories of the data and management relationships on campus. At the same time, experimentation in the core technologies, most notably in directory services, should be undertaken.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

At the Edge of the Earth

Below the snowline is a treeless zone of alpine pastures that have for generations been used for the summer grazing of goats and cattle. Agriculture is confined to the valleys and foothills, with fruit growing and viticulture on some sunny slopes. Further down the mountin normal plants still cannot grow only plants that are adapted to the cold are able to grow. Forests of the pine trees grow higher up the mountain where it is colder. Forest of broad-leaved trees and a wide range of other vegetation grow at the base of the mountain. Typically in mountain ranges it is high on the mountaintop. It is so cold that plants cannot grow here. There is only snow and bare rock. Summit regions above 3000 m (about 9800 ft) are glaciated. Peaks and crests, however, rise above the ice, displaying jagged shapes (tooth like horns, needles, and knife-edged ridges). About 2 % of the total area of the Alps is covered in ice. The longest valley glacier, the aletsch Glacier in the Bernese Alps, is 18 km (11ml) long. My great grandfather used to be a farmer but nowadays people in this area are no longer relaying on agriculture. Now people tend to work in the tourist industry and farmland has been give up to build ski slopes and lodges. Older people feel that the area has lost its natural beauty but most of their income comes from the tourist industry. Oak, hornbeam, and pie trees dominate the warm foothill zones, and sheltered valleys opening onto the Upper Italian Lakes abound with subtropical vegetation. A region of beech forests encompasses the cooler zone and grades at higher elevations into the fir and spruce belt. Mountain maple, spruce, and larch extend to the timberline. Living in mountainous regions can bring problems with individual isolated areas separated by mountains and rivers. In past times communications would have been a problem but since 1981 tunnels have been built linking areas. Higher areas in Fold Mountains like the Alps are not available to live because of the jagged ice and it is to cold. Traditionally the economy has relayed on farming and forestry. Alpine pastures have been used for grazing goats and cattle below the snow line. Life has however changed in the Alps tourism has brought with it both benefits and problems. 50 million people visit the Alps every year. The attraction is mainly winter ski-ing. To cater for all these people forests have to be mown down to make room for the ski slopes and lodges for people o stay in. Effects of tourism include erosion and acid rain from the many vehicles. Areas of this nature are prone to avalanches. Benefits and problems can also be seen with the tunnels. There have been numerous accidents in the tunnels. Recently two trucks collided and exploded in the St. Gothard tunnel as a result a hundred people are missing. Long alpine tunnels are crucial in modern living but accidents have left officials questioning them. A distinctive Alpine pastoral economy that evolved through the centuries has been modified since the 19th century by industry based on indigenous raw materials, such as the industries in the Mur and Murz valleys of the southern Austria that used iron ore from deposits near Eisenerz. Hydroelectric power development at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, often involving many different watersheds, led to the establishment in the lower valleys of electricity-dependent industries, manufacturing such products as aluminium, chemicals, and specialty steels. Tourism, which began in the 19th century in a modest way, has become, since the end of World War II, a mass phenomenon. Thus, the Alps have become a summer and winter playground for millions of European urban dwellers and annually attract tourists from around the world. Because of this enormous human impact on a fragile and ecological environment, the Alps are the most threatened mountain system in the world. The first of the great tunnels through the Alps, the Mount Cenis tunnel between France and Italy, was built between 1857 and 1870 and opened in 1871. The St Gotthard line, with its spiral tunnel approaches at Goschenen, was built between 1872 and 1882. The Arlberg tunnel in the southwest Austria, connecting Vorarlberg with the Tyrol, dates from 1884, and the Simplon rail tunnel, the longest in the world, was built between 1898 and 1906. Construction of a new St Gotthard rail link began in 1990 with a 20-year completion schedule. Swift road travel between Italy and Germany became possible during World War II, when the totalitarian regimes of these countries linked their new motorway networks over the Fern and Brenner passes. The road tunnel under Mont Blanc was opened in 1965. Many truck roads now cross the Alps, such as the main motorway route from Switzerland to Italy, which runs from Zurich past the Walensee and the town of Chur. Causes: * Heavy snowfall compressing and adding weight to the earlier falls, especially on windward slopes. * Steep slopes of over 25 degrees where stability is reduced and friction is more easily overcome. * A sudden increase in temperature, especially on the south-facing slopes and, in the Alps, under fohn wind conditions. * Heavy rain falling upon snow (more likely in Scotland than in the Alps) * Deforestation, partly for new ski runs, which reduces slope stability. * Vibrations triggered by off-piste skiers, any nearby traffic and more dangerously, earth movements. * Very long, cold, dry winters followed by heavy snowfalls in spring. Under theses conditions, earlier falls of snow will turn into ice over which later falls will slide (some local people perceive this to pose the greatest avalanche risk). Consequences: Avalanches can block roads and railways, cut off power supplies and telecommunications and, under extreme conditions, destroy buildings and cause loss of life. Between 1980 and 1991 there were, in Alpine Europe alone 1210-recorded deaths.

Gag Clauses Essay

For the past ten years, the Health Management Organizations (HMO), who is responsible on the health care programs, had imposed a new system that restrict and inhibit physicians in communicating to their patients. (Wynn, 1996) This is known as ‘gag clause†. The physician must not discuss the medical condition and all treatment options of their patients. These include the right health care plan, the appropriate treatment and medications that may be benefit to the patient in terms of cost. (Liang, 1998) The issue on the gag clauses creates a big noise especially on the practitioners and physicians. This issue receives many criticisms. According to some critics, it is the obligation of a physician to educate and inform his patient on what kind of treatment, and the kind of health care plan. This is because physicians are trained to treat the bad health conditions of their patients. The gag clause thus inhibits the open discussion of the two parties. Because of the gag clause issue, the House of Representative and the Legislature of United States are now making a proper move to inhibit the gag clauses in physician contracts. But almost 200 million of the citizens of the said country rely on health care programs of HMOs. The lawmakers of United States, who had made laws and enforces these to protect its citizens, medicine companies as well as the practitioners from the HMOs, still HMOs finds a way to control the actions of their hired physicians. This is the termination-without-cause clause. In this clause, the physician to be hired by HMOs can be fired for any reason. The restrictions of physicians in communicating to their patients produce major problems especially on the side of the patient. One of these problem is the lost of trust and confidence of the patient if his original physician has been deselected. Then the second physician must handle the latter treatment on the patient which is very difficult because of little time. Then the second physician also faces a constraint in communicating to his patient. This will result to low quality health care service given by HMOs. The welfare of the patients is being jeopardized because of gag clauses. A study was conducted on the performance of physicians experiencing gag clauses from their health care company. From the physicians who were interviewed, majority do their medical obligation as part of their ethical duties in providing the necessary medication and treatments for their patients. They do not even read carefully the provisions of the contracts they signed in handling their patients. But because of the alarming issues on the deselecting, physicians were limited on communicating to their patients the health conditions and proper treatment. While on the side of physician sectors, there profession is being put at risk. As a physician, their responsibility is to take care of their patient which is the core of their medical responsibility. If these physicians were unluckily deselected, their ethical responsibility to raise and support their family will be affected. Thus, physicians are faced in a two situations were they must choose which will they do. Thus the purpose of their profession is being sacrificed. In almost contract signing, there are some elements to consider and understand by both parties before they undergo in signing. Some of the key terms to consider are the payment terms, duty and obligations of parties, representations and warranties, conditions on the closure of the contract, some liability issues and termination rights. In contract signing in a managed care setting, the identification of the parties who will sign the contract must first be done. In terms of managed care setting, the health care provider, physicians and the consumers or patients are the main characters. Then the recitals will follow. In this part, it contains the background of the contract as well the objective. The obligation of the parties involved is the next element to be discussed before signing. The health care provider will provide all the necessary treatments needed by the patient for his wellness. This includes the necessary and appropriate health care plan. While the physician medical responsibility is to provide the necessary treatment needed by the patient in which he can apply his profession. These include care and medication of the patient. And lastly, the obligation of the patient is in term of financial obligation for the health care provider and to the physician. (Allbusiness, 2007) Next to be considered are the terms of the contract. It must be clearly stated what are the sanction if one of the terms was not made. Also, the contract must be known if it is an only one time or it can be renewed. And if the contract is renewable, how it can be renewed? These questions must be first answered before the signing of the medical health care contract. After this, the price must be set. How much will it cost the service of the health care provider to their costumers or patients and the salary of the physician assigned, as well as the terms of payments between the parties? When will the due of the payment and what are the consequences if the due was not met by one of the party concerned. Warranty is also part of a contract. The warranties must be clearly stated on how it can be claimed and in what way. If the health care program does not meet the terms, how will the health care provider pay the consequence? And how long the warranty will is good for. And lastly is the term of termination of the contract. When will the health care program end in concern on the patient? When will the physician medical obligation ends. The above are mentioned are the key terms in contract signing in a health care setting. (Allbusiness, 2007) In contract signing in a health care setting, a major concern that must be considered is that-if the contract contains provisions of illegal act? Because majority of the HMOs contract’s contain provision of not letting communication on the physician-patient relationship, the Federal government of United States enforce these HMOs to eliminate these gag clauses. In a contract, it is stated that the patient under a health care program is entitled to all benefits of the health care program. ( Scanlon, 1999) Because of this, the Health Care Financing Administration force HMOs to eliminate gag clauses on their contracts. If a contract contains illegal act such that of the gag clauses, it will be considered as a violation on the Medicare law. This is because almost physicians believe that inhibiting them in communicating with their patients about their medical condition might result to increase on the risk on their health condition. (Frascati, 2005) Even tough some of the health care plans of HMOs were revised in connection with the gag clauses; still there are provisions and conditions that hinder the communication of physician-patient relationship. Some of these provisions are the business confidentiality clause, nondisparagement clause and nonsolicitation clause. These provisions are discrete form of inhibition of the communication. (Lott, 1997) If one of the provisions in a contract is unenforceable like no legal action or waiver of right to trial by jury, and then the contract is considered void. (Higuchi, 1995)