Saturday, December 28, 2019

The Correlation Between Sensory Ability And Cognitive...

Age is not mainly affecting what we see, encode and memorize --- Exploring through the relations of visual acuity and cognition Most of the people might think that as time goes by, as we are growing and getting older, we might not be capable to recall things as good as when we are at our 20s. But does the visual acuity and cognition attenuation have direct relation to our age? It is a good way for us to get the answer to this question from the prior researches results. Some crucial findings of the compelling relation between sensory ability and cognitive function in different age groups of people have been found from prior research. There are a few explanations are presented toward this relation. One of these explanations suggests that cognitive processing is restricted by sensory abilities, while the other one claims that sensory abilities have influences on cognitive abilities; the third one points out that both of sensory and cognitive abilities have impact on each other by a potentially aged based, third factor. Moderation and mediation analyses are applied to explore the visual acuity, which plays a rol e of being sensory measure, while the scores from auditory memory and visual speed tests as the cognitive measure. According to a brief research report (Claire G, La Fleur, Timothy A. Salthouse, (2014) Out of sight, Out of mind? University of Virginia), an experiment has been set up to draw a conclusion from these sayings. TheShow MoreRelatedThe Effect Of Fine Motor Skills And Vocabulary Development1251 Words   |  6 PagesThe recent shift from handwriting to typing in early schooling is largely due to the introduction of computers into the classroom. While this allows students accesses to more information than ever before, there could be cognitive detriments to this sudden introduction to technology in the classroom. This is a critical period for children who are undergoing an extensive expansion of their gross and fine motor skills. Fine motor skills are considered the movements of children’s small muscles, includingRead MoreJean Piaget and the Four Major Stages of Cogni tive Theory Essay897 Words   |  4 PagesJEAN PIAGET and THE FOUR MAJOR STAGES OF COGNITIVE THEORY                            The patriarch of cognitive theory was Jean Piaget(1896-1980). Piaget was a biologist, who became interested in human thinking while working to evaluate the results of child intelligence tests.   As Piaget worked he noted the correlation between the childs age and the type of error they made. Intrigued by the discovery that certain errors occurred predictably at certain age, he began to focus his time and energyRead MoreUnderstanding The Brain s Physical Operation948 Words   |  4 PagesUnderstanding the brain’s physical operation is essential to frame the relationship between brain and mind. The brain functions as a result of many complex processes; however, Jeeves and Brown narrow the brain’s activity into eight critical principles. These principles provide a background necessary to deduce insightful information from neuroscience’s current research of the correlation between our mental lives and brain systems. The first principle describes the PNS and CNS as action loops. AnRead MoreThe Concept Of Imagination, By Giambattista Vico And Thomas Hobbes1714 Words   |  7 PagesThe concept of imagination is classified to be highly significant within the presence of our contemporary generation as it is construed from diverse forms of perspectives. The role of imagination is defined to be imperative within the cognitive spectrum as it allows individuals to understand the functionality of the human mind within the world (Pern 162). Furthermore, the concept of imagination is fundamental within the study of cultural psychology, as well as apprehending the objective behind theRead MoreChildhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition By Schopler1101 Words   |  5 PagesBlind, Staunton, VA. The second edition of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale was developed for use a wider array of health care professionals as well as to establish general characteristics of children with autism who exhibit higher int ellectual ability. They also made slight changes to the format of the rating book. The test comes in three forms; The Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition–Standard Version, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition–High-Functioning Version and theRead MoreCognitive Development Of Children With Autism1260 Words   |  6 PagesCOGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM Cognitive development in children with autism spectrum disorder is vastly complex in its entirety. During development, the most critical period is within the first 6 years of life; at the age of 7, our brain is nearly developed to the average adult size. During this time, myelination, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning are occurring and contribute significantly to the development of the brain. If disruption occurs in brain development, it is possibleRead MoreReview On The Differential Ability Scales809 Words   |  4 Pagesto do my review on the Differential Ability Scales. This particular test appealed to me because it tests children from ages 2 through 17 with varying developmental levels. Some of the things measured are cognitive abilities, which includes verbal and visual working memory, understanding of basic number concepts, processing and naming speed, and matching and visual recognition. The Differential Ability Scales is an individually administered battery of cognitive and achievement tests for childrenRead MoreComparing Theories Of Intelligence And Discuss Their Implications For Assessing Intelligence2136 Words   |  9 PagesAlfred Binet; a French physician. Binet was asked to devise a method which could differentiate between the students. Binet did this by developing an intelligence test (Chamorro-Premuzic, 2011:144). Previous intelligence tests had an emphasis on physical measures, sensory tasks and simple processes (ibid). In contrast, Binet’s intelligence test contained complex processes which examined the comprehensive abilities of the students (Garrison, 2009:73). Consequently, the results proved that the test was successfulRead MoreCerebral Hemispheres : Connection And Separation1487 Words   |  6 PagesCerebral hemispheres: connection and separation The human brain is divided in two different symmetrical parts, the hemispheres, which are connected by the corpus callosum – this connection enables us to engage in higher cognitive processes (Rogers, Zucca Vallortigara, 2004). Evolution provided us with the capacity to benefit from lateralization, allowing us to perform well while involved in two completely different tasks simultaneously. Furthermore, the plasticity of the brain makes it easy toRead MoreIntelligence, Cognitive, And Cognitive Psychology1543 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Cognitive psychology is defined as the internal mental processes, or how human beings process information. Cognition itself refers to mental actions of acquiring knowledge and understanding through: â€Å"experience, and the sensory input,† resulting in a sense of perception and notion ( Intelligence is an example of cognition, and the ongoing debate on intelligence and how to measure it intrigued me into further

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Romantic Love Is a Poor Basis for Marriage - 1257 Words

Love is Blinding It felt as if she were standing in a timeless dream. In Paris, she waited for the not so stranger at a candlelit table by a crescent moon. The view from the Eiffel tower was amazing as she gazed off; she was so close she could almost touch it. All of a sudden, a familiar figure stepped out from the shadows and startled her. It was who she had been waiting for all along. As he made his way toward her, he took her hands into his. Out of the stillness, soft words were spoken, â€Å"We were strangers starting out on a journey. Never dreaming what we would have to go through. Now here we are, and I am suddenly standing right before you.† He then gets down on one knee as he retrieves a small ring box from his pocket. Then, he†¦show more content†¦(â€Å"Divorce Statistics in USA†) Couple Gordon and Norma Yeager were married for 72 years, until a quite fatal car accident. When being hospitalized they shared a room together where they held hands. It se emed as if while holding hands Norma’s heart was beating through Gordon. He proclaimed that he was not going anywhere until she did first. So then, they died together holding hands. This is what we all call true love. Something that is hard to obtain. With this couple they had everything, love was just a bonus. This is exactly how they would have wanted to die; together. (Long-Married Couple Gordon Yeager and Norma Yeager Die Holding Hands.) Love may be the most important thing, but it is not the only thing. In marriage, it takes commitment, patience, loyalty, respect, and solidarity. You cannot have that with someone you do not know. Instead of just falling in love right away people should get to know their mate and understand just about every aspect about them. They need to know them inside and out; know their good and bad qualities and be able to accept who they are. If there had to be a type of love as a basis for a great marriage, it would be Agape; unconditional love. W ith unconditional love anything is possible, especially when you’re selfless. Those who are the Agape type are willing to make sacrifices. That is a love that won’t decay. Nevertheless, you can only get that kind of love from knowingShow MoreRelatedRomantic love is a poor basis for marriage.2917 Words   |  12 Pagesï » ¿Introduction The decline of marriage in the West has been extensively researched over the last three decades (Carmichael and Whittaker; de Vaus; Coontz; Beck-Gernshein). Indeed, it was fears that the institution would be further eroded by the legalisation of same sex unions internationally that provided the impetus for the Australian government to amend the Marriage Act (1961). These amendments in 2004 sought to strengthen marriage by explicitly defining, for the first time, marriage as a legal partnershipRead MoreThe Northanger Abbey And The Vicar Of Wakefield1615 Words   |  7 PagesAbbey and The Vicar of Wakefield is that of the economy of love or more specifically marriage. Today, people take for granted that people get married for love and little else. The idea of marriage as an economic decision is a foreign and fascinating idea in today’s society, but it was very prominent in Goldsmith’s and Austen’s times and that is reflected in their novels. Take first, Goldsmith’s The Vicar of Wakefield and what role romantic love plays in the novel. The Vicar himself presents many differentRead MoreEssay on Love and Marriage in Gallants The Other Paris913 Words   |  4 PagesThe Other Paris Love waxes timeless. It is passionate and forbidden and a true head rush. Marriage, on the other hand, is practical, safe, a ride up the socioeconomic ladder. In The Other Paris, Mavis Gallant weaves the tale of Carol and Howard, a fictional couple who stand on the verge of a loveless marriage, to symbolize the misguided actions of the men and women in the reality of the 1950s, the storys setting. By employing stereotypical, ignorant, and altogether uninteresting charactersRead MoreCourtly Love in The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay1109 Words   |  5 Pages Courtly love—an expression of passion, a token of intimacy, and a vibrant theme which permeates the spirit of F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby. Energetic and enterprising, young James Gatz ascends the social ladder to become a grossly successful and affluent businessman, all driven by a single purpose: to win the beautiful Daisy’s heart. Gatsby plays his role as Daisy’s courtly lover by h is ambitions to satisfy his sincere, undying ardor and to prove his commitment to Daisy’s wellbeing. TheRead MoreThemes in Taming of the Shrew1433 Words   |  6 Pageslord plays a prank on a poor, drunken man named Christopher Sly. The lord convinces the poor man that he is actually a lord himself and that the troop of actors that have arrived are there to perform a play for him. This play that the troop of actors performs is the story of Petruchio, who wants to marry for money, and Katherina, the shrew. The two actually marry and Petruchio uses his skills to â€Å"tame† Kate. This comedy of Shakespeare’s covers the themes of disguise, marriage, and transformation. Read MoreJane Eyre Critical Analysis1008 Words   |  5 PagesLiterature Period 1 5 December 2017 TITLE In the outstanding novel of Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontà «, one is presented with the story of a romantic heroine named Jane Eyre who pursued independence during an era in which women were inferior to men. Jane proved her independence by demanding self-respect, becoming socially independent, and pursuing true love based on equality. Jane Eyre was an orphan left to depend on unsympathetic relatives who mistreated her. As Millicent bell explains inRead MoreCohabitation- Wiki889 Words   |  4 PagesCohabitation  is an arrangement where two people who are not  married  live together in an  intimate relationship, particularly an emotionally and/or sexually intimate one, on a long-term or permanent basis Reasons for cohabitation When people have more personal freedoms, they seem to forget traditional morals one of which is not living together until they get married. Through press, we know that more and more young people cohabit nowadays, especially among students and industrial workersRead MoreLove And Prejudice By Jane Austen1722 Words   |  7 Pages Love and Marriage in Pride and Prejudice Yuexin Ma (Mandy) Dr. W. Smith ENGL 222 December 9, 2015 Love and Marriage in Pride and Prejudice No doubt, among Jane Austen’s works, Pride and Prejudice is one of the most well-known stories in the world and her greatest success. This famous novel was written in 1813, and was translated into many languages and made into films for several times. Pride and Prejudice has both love and money for the tone to the theme of marriage. The greatnessRead MoreJane Austen s Pride And Prejudice1649 Words   |  7 PagesAusten is pre-occupied with the theme of marriage. Marriage is a central issue of a woman’s life but it was even more crucial for the women of her society where women were largely dependent on the men in their lives. As a result, women pursued socio-economic stability through marriage. However, it is clear through the novel that Austen did not agree with this part of her society. In Pride and Prejudice, she gives preference to a marriage which is based on love and respect. This can be seen through theRead MoreThe Sociology of Love, Courtship, and Dating4568 Word s   |  131 PagesBryant-45099 Part VII.qxd 10/18/2006 7:22 PM Page 266 26 THE SOCIOLOGY OF LOVE, COURTSHIP, AND DATING ERICA OWENS West Virginia University T he question of â€Å"What is love?† has piqued curiosity and engendered frustration for much of history. The exasperated answer that you â€Å"just know† when you are in love is reflected in the body of sociological literature on the phenomenon. Sociologists do not seem to agree on a uniform definition, although there are several competing but

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

The Queen is Dead by The Smiths free essay sample

It seems only natural that I review the album that I love more than I love breathing itself. No, this is the album that I must find on vinyl before I die. I cannot receive it as a gift, as a rule. I must come across it myself and purchase it; needless to say, I frequent many thrift stores and music shops in the quest. The Queen is Dead is the Smiths third album, released on June 16, 1986, two days after Bastille Day in France, which is a cute coincidence, considering the titular disdain for monarchy that Steven Patrick Morrissey, the animated frontman of the band, possessed. It sold phenomenally in the UK, peaking at #2 in the charts, but waned ever-so-slightly internationally, only reaching #28 in Canadas charts and #70 in the American Billboard Top 200. Despite this, the record went gold in 1990. These little statistics are moot points. The music speaks for itself. The album starts with the title track, The Queen is Dead. The track opens with a sample from what is doubtless an old British film, then proceeds into a punk-influenced drum beat, followed by what Smith fans call Morrisseys chipmunk voice, or a high pitched effect on his vocals. The effect quickly ends and switches over to the noted baritone of Morrissey who eventually delivers this number: Oh, has the world changed, or have I changed ? Oh has the world changed, or have I changed ? Typical bastard. Ahhhh, and that wah wah from Marr at the end. Following the titular track is the American Western-sounding Frankly, Mr. Shankly, a tongue-in-cheek monologue addressing some godawful, farting, illiterate boss that the Smith boys probably knew in Manchester. With lines such as, Sometimes I feel more fulfilled, making Christmas cards for the mentally ill,I want to catch something I might be afraid of, and Frankly, Mr. Shankly, since you ask, you are a flatulent pain in the ass. we are bombarded with that renowned Brit wit. The beautiful I Know Its Over, sounds like the kind of tune you see the lovelorn protagonist of a teen drama mulling over as his chips seem as down as they could ever be. Its a ballad at the simplest, but its so much more than that. Its the prom date that went to s***, a break up, whatever. It hurts to hear, especially the high shrieks of agony Moz lets out at the last minute mark. I got tears now. S***. The second of the three great ballads from this album, Never Had No One Ever, possesses what I think may be some of the sneakiest examples of Mike Joyces percussion prowess. If you can take your ears off the angel voice of the leader, you can fully appreciate the clean snare rolls and crisp sounding symbols. Oh snap, at 2:16, somebodys whistling. Is that the winds of loneliness? I dunno, child, I dont. There are just some sneaky s*** in here, like laughter and crying. The mixer for this album was genius My 2nd favorite Smiths tune is Cemetary Gates, for good reason. First, the mention of Yeats, Keats, and Wilde automatically garner my squees. Then theres good old Andy Rourke on bass, playing such cool, subtle lines that put other Alt. bassist so utter shame. That jangly Marr guitar though.GAWD. The progression may be simple, but its lovely. And I havent even delved in the attacks on pseudo-intellectualism Moz makes though out the song. Ill let you take a gander at them, since I needed to focus more on the instrumentals. My favorite Smiths tune, which I often play on guitar at ungodly hours of the night, is Bigmouth Strikes Again. Again, we fall captive to the chipmunk voice shouting, Bigmouth! and Now I know how Joan of Arc felt. Mike Joyce plays plenty of neat snare fills, while Andy Rourke holds down a relatively complex groove on his bass. This is probably the stereotypical tune for really picking apart Morrisseys voice, what with the changes between baritone to falsetto and groans. The next track is a personal favorite of mine and also Morrissey himself, though his coconspirator, Johnny Marr has called it effortless. The Boy With a Thorn in his Side, showcases more of Morrisseys vocal range, reaching a crazy peak at 1:58-2:00. Beautiful. Excellent. Plus the lyrics of some miscreant seeking passion, a true boy with a thorn in his side. The jangly guitar, walking bass, and synthesized strings only add on to the cake. Vicar in a Tutu is a clever tune, with a lot in common with the aforementioned Frankly, Mr. Shankly. Once again, the Smiths incorporate a beboping little shuffle with clever imagery in lyrics. Imagine, a vicar crossdressing! The irony! Alas, the most famous tune by the Smiths, There is A Light That Never Goes Out. It is the last of the ballads on this great album. The lyrics and bass are the biggest standouts, in my opinion. That and the synth orchestra which strikes again in this tune. Why is Rourke so under looked for his skill? This bassline is fecking gorgeous, his best doubtlessly. To die by your side is such a heavenly way to die. Well, Moz, I appreciate the statement, but thats as creepy as it is beautiful. You play the insane introvert romantic too well, my good sir. Ah, the ending of such a beautiful album: Some Girls Are Bigger Than Others. The most impressive thing about the track is its beginning, fading in from obscurity, then out to absolute nothingness, and back again. Its such an oddity to hear, but done right, as in this case, its wonderful. The guitar riff here is probably Marrs best, any Ultimate-Guitar warriors reading this should give the tabs a look. Relatively simple stuff, but beautiful. Morrissey uses a strange effect similar to a trucker radio to deliver, Send me the pillow, the one that you dream on, and Ill send you mine. Another great tune on Rourkes part as well. You know, I still dont know if this song is about women being fatter than others or having a bigger rack. After all this time. Oh well, thats the conclusion of my review. I hope you enjoyed listening to the album as much as I do. Sources: The Queen Is Dead. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 16 Sept. 2013. Web. 08 Oct. 2013.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Colors by Between the Buried and Me free essay sample

Colors, the start of the epic sounds of Between the Buried and Me. The album that the band has considered to be New Wave Polka Grunge(ask them not me) would soon become my favorite album of all time. This album is also the start of longer compositions like Sun of Nothing, and White Walls. Much like the previous ones, this does have a single, that being Prequal to the Sequal, and much likw all the others, they are catchy or classics in certain ways. I know this is a concept album of sorts, but aside from the way they bleed into each other and how they all follow a demented carnivalistic music style, I dont see much else. If you can some how figure out how the stories in all tracks connect let me know in the comments below what you find. Every track on here is a masterpiece nonetheless and all would fit in my top 100, if I revised it that is. We will write a custom essay sample on Colors by Between the Buried and Me or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page From the Foam Born tracks to the epic finale of White Walls. The album is set to be one gigantic song spaning at a whopping 64 minutes in length. Prequal To the Sequal talks about the formation and destruction of the planet. White Walls is about going crazy and trying to help others in that state. And Sun of Nothing is about a person building a spaceship to kill himself on the sun, yet he survives. I love how the boys of South Carolina are writing longer, more epic compositons as well because that is basicly what I live for. Ants of the Sky, Prequal to the Sequal, White Walls, Informal Gluttony, Foam Born, Viridian, and Sun of Nothing make up the track listing for the entire album(granted its not in order at all), as an epic display of awesome. Think what happened when you listened to Dark Side of The Moon or The Wall for the first time Pink Floyd fans. You will likely see the same thing here once you listen to this album for the first time. In fact, compare Dark Side of the Moons album cover to Colors, it looks remarkably similar with the rainbow colors flying everywhere in both covers. I beg of you to check out this album one way or another. It is the exact definition of Musical Genius. 10/10

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Role of Scholars in Different Societie an Example by

Role of Scholars in Different Societie The development of societies in different parts of the world resulted to the diversification of knowledge-bases (Cristi 69). This diversification process was the consequence of socio-politico-economic factors that were unique and specific to different societies. As such, deducting from the process itself, different societies developed different world views. This development resulted to the establishment of religious, economic, political, and social structures that maintained social order and harmony. Now, because the people in these societies viewed these structures as necessary and inevitable for a civilized life, there was a need to reinforce the knowledge-bases. This was done by establishing educational institutions which aimed to preserve the microcosmic relationship of man to man, man to nature, and man to society. These educational institutions were represented by the scholars; the forebears and preservers of knowledge. Need essay sample on "Role of Scholars in Different Societie" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Because societies had different knowledge-bases, the scholars representing it had differing roles. For example, a scholar in ancient China was not only expected to analyze and critique ancient texts, he (the scholar was always male) was expected to incorporate his own style to ancient texts. In this way, new knowledge was added to the knowledge of the ancients. This was both a show of respect to the ancestors as well as a sign of progress. The end of which was harmony. The scholar though could not question the reliability of ancient or existing texts since tradition forbid them from critiquing the personality of ancient authors. In India, most scholars dealt with religion (Hinduism an analysis of the ancient Vedic texts). After the death of Alexander the Great, Indian scholars focused on the relationship of man to nature (nature being the representation of the gods). Specifically, most Indian scholars during that time analyzed political and social crises and its relationship with the divine beings. They assumed that any social or political crisis was caused by the gods. Hence, during that time, Indian scholars served as warning tools of kings and nobles of upcoming crises. They were though not mere puppets, for their ability to know the thoughts of the gods put them in a much esteemed position and power (Cristi 47). In Arab nations, Arab scholars also focused on religion (Islam). For these scholars, Islam was tantamount to a way of life (which became the basis for the establishment of rigid, Islamic societies); assuming preeminence over man and society. Thus, the role of an Arab scholar was simple: to consolidate all knowledge relevant to the preservation and expansion of Islam. Some Arab scholars though deviated from this pattern of thought. They sought knowledge from different parts of the world to project the differences and note the deficiencies of current knowledge bases. This was important for them since they believe of the absolute value of knowledge (that knowledge ought not to be discriminating). In Europe, scholars enjoyed a certain degree of freedom in developing knowledge-bases. Hence, because of this flexibility, many scholars became authorities of specific sciences and arts, making progress possible. Hence, scholars in Europe (circa 1200 A.D.) were considered to be the motors of cultural development. Work Cited Cristi, Marcela. From Civil to Political Religion: The Intersection of Culture, Religion and Politics. New York: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2001.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Shoshanna johnson essays

Shoshanna johnson essays In the current U.S. military, women fight in the battlefields along with men like never before. Long gone are the days when female soldiers were nurses or were serving in some other unseen duty. As a result, 24 female soldiers have died in Iraq, 15 from enemy fire. Today more women have died in this war than in any war since World War II. (Germany) Despite how many women have died, for the supporters of women rights in the military, it's a giant step for gender equality. People argue that it isn't a positive development but one that does more harm to society than good. And while women now serve on combat ships, fly combat missions and conduct door to door searches through dangerous Iraqi neighborhoods, many limits still remain. They're still restricted from infantry units, armor and field artillery companies in wartime. So while the combat doors have opened for women willing to die for their country just as the men do, the battle for complete gender equality remains a conflict. According to Elias there is over 210,000 women serve their country in the armed forces, comprising more than 15 percent of the total force. (Elias 1) About 80 percent of the jobs and more than 90 percent of the career fields are open to women, but there are still certain fields in which women can not serve in. Sadly women still face barriers. This should not be. There's no doubt that more American service women are in life-threatening situations now more than ever before. Just recently there has been a huge controversy about two women in the military who were captured during the war in Iraq and held against their will for countless days, their names are Shoshana Johnson and Jessica lynch. Shoshana Johnson and Jessica Lynch both come from poor families and both are good examples of the typical enlisted females. Many women that enlist in the military are either poor or are looking for a different alterative for college. ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 16

Research Paper Example .it was established that international students are not receiving adequate support from the institution with regard to several issues such as physical and electronic barriers to accessing support services. This report explores the level of satisfaction and experiences of international students at QUTIC, with regards to insurance and banking support services offered at the campus. It is important that the management of QUT International College have this information so that they can better support international students concerning their financial issues. The data is obtained through 20 questionnaires, including 11 closed and one open question. The major findings are that students require more support from the institution as far as financial issues are concerned. Recommendations have also been suggested on how to overcome the barriers, including initiating financial assistance talks and making support services more accessible for international students. Students were asked to choose between four banking and insurance services that they would prefer to have as a mobile application if QUT were to develop one. As evident from the chart above, 8 out of 20 respondents would prefer to have a mobile application that enabled them to make claims on Overseas Student Health Cover (OSHC).â€Æ' 4 It can be concluded that making claims on the health cover is a difficult experience hence international students would appreciate having it on their mobile phones to make such transactions easier. Making the claims is a common practice since it is mandatory to have OSHC (Department of Immigration and Border Protection 2014, para 1). Students would prefer the convenience of making the transaction through their mobile phones as compared to the already established procedures. 4 Figure 2: Extent to which international students would want establishment of a finance assistance talk†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.5 QUT

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Memo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 13

Memo - Essay Example Before joining ISU for my bachelor’s program, I had managed to garner some achievements in my young career life. Among the achievements I have garnered thus far, two stand out as the most memorable. The first achievement was receiving ‘Best Intern’ award during my time at ABC electronic company after graduating from high school. This award came after the hard work and drive I put in completing my tasks in a timely manner at the organization to the point where I got recognized by the staff and selected for the award. This award is of note as I had only interned at the organization for six months!! The second accomplishment was receiving a ‘best science fair project’ under a physics science fair held at my high school. This award helped to reaffirm my belief that I was destined to be great in the field of science. Before moving over to the US, I worked at a mining company in South Africa—Broadmill Mining. I was tasked as an electrical engineer intern where my responsibilities revolved around developing economic feasibility studies, researching on electrical systems at mining sites, and assisting with reporting on the various stages of project development. My abilities to multi-task, working around schedules, and being flexible were greatly tested and proven during this period. Individuals and organizations are nothing without the communities they serve in and serve for. It is for this reason that I am always passionate about community service and the overall giving back to the society whenever and however possible. I have been lucky to serve in organizations that are cognizant of upholding community service values. As an intern at ABC electronic Company I got involved with the organization’s ‘building green’ campaign for their community service. This campaign ensured everyone who worked at the organization would undertake tree planting during the weekends at various communal sites pinpointed by the organization

Sunday, November 17, 2019

English language class Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

English language class - Essay Example English is the main language in use within the country and therefore it becomes mandatory that I take this writing program in order to improve on my capacity to communicate in English through writing as well as be in a position to study effectively. Besides, with my future plans being in pursuing and practicing as an economist at an international front, it is prerequisite that I improve on my language which is to be English. I therefore feel indebted to write to any international student freshly enrolled for this course as a first year, first because I am equally an international student and also because in often times, as international students, fresh students often feel inadequate and would easily lose track on their studies with the perception that English as a language is difficult. Every international student ready to pursue this course should consider the following questions which would help in building confidence within them over the subject and hence be positive about English writing program. Why do people enroll for studies at any level? Am I as the student the first to pursue the program and if not why then cant I make it? How has the school structured the program and what are the resources that are available for use to the students in learning? In focusing on the previously stated questions to lead fresh students, I write to ascertain that such fears are always there and justifiable; more so to international students. Basic to any study experience is to learn new things of interest to the learner. This therefore would explain why students should be positive while enrolling for any course even a t an international school because the interest to learn new insights should guide them. This understanding would therefore be the bottom line to enrolment or any course because after all why should a person travel across borders and

Friday, November 15, 2019

Adult And Community Care Case Study Social Work Essay

Adult And Community Care Case Study Social Work Essay This assignment focuses on Adults and community care case study. The work highlights the main issues that need immediate attention and attempts to provide an account on how to address them. An improvement of the quality of life for Jan and Magda may be realized so that they could live a fulfilling life in old age. On the other hand investigating the main issues, demands a discussion the importance of interdisciplinary and multi-agency working. It is also possible to explore the policies and legislative mandates and frameworks that inform both the assessment and intervention. This exploration provides guidance as to what is acceptable under law and policies. At the same time, the importance of incorporating theories and approaches will be discussed and analysed. Then l will draw attention to the importance of incorporating theories into practice, guides what a social worker may need to look out for; and enables one to account for the values and situation in society of day to day work of social workers. The last part shall analyse the importance of interventions in an anti-discriminatory and anti-oppressive way. This essay draws reference from the code of practice and other relevant professional guidelines under the law. The work being a course assignment may not explore all the needs due to limit of words, but major topics discussed in this assignment are interlinked; therefore it is not going to possible to discuss one issue alone without refereeing to the other. A summary is given at the end. Assessments of significant issues The key issues highlighted in the case study may be categorised as medical, financial, mobility and social needs. In-order to address the issues highlighted, an assessment for Magda is required. Consultation with interdisciplinary and multi-agency bodies should be carried out as observed by Macka(1990). Information can be gathered through meetings, in Magdas case key attendees would be the general practitioner, the community nurse and the community mental health team and a social worker. The multi-agency meetings facilitate sharing of information between all organisations in a safe and secure manner. (Surrey Council) Information collected will help the assessor to make an informed assessment and risk assessment. However the consent of service user to sharing of information should be sought as suggested by Milner and OByrne(1998) It is important for Magda and Jan to attend such meeting however it is possible for professionals to hold meeting without service users. When using single assessment process, it is important to acknowledge that there are 4 types that fall under the SAP; these are contact, overview, specialist and comprehensive. More than one assessment can be carried out at once. Different local governments authorities may implement SAP using slightly different assessment tools and the threshold of eligibility may also differ from one local authority to the other. Under the NHSCCA 1990 Section 47 (1) (a) Magda has the right to an assessment, and within the same act; S 47 (1) (b) will help the assessor to determine the eligibility criteria known as the Fair Access to Care DH 2010. Here the assessor will be working in accordance GSCC code of practice which states that Social workers should promote the independence of service users and promote them as far as possible from danger and harm. GSCC (2002) Eligibility is graded on four bands, the low, moderate, substantial critical (Surrey Council, 2011). The White paper caring for people (DOH 1989) aims to enable people to live a normal life as much as possible in their homes or in a homely environment in the community. Assessments should help Magda and Jan to identify not only their needs but also their strengths and abilities under this paper. The wishes of service users should be kept on the forefront of the care planning and service delivery. This upholds the GSCC code of practice ref. 4.1. GSCC (2002). Hence the interventions led to promoting good health and quality of life in the community. The (DOH 1989) also states that the right amount of care and support provided helps people achieve independence by maintaining basic living skills to achieve attainment of daily living activities Johns (2005) p.79. The Carers (Recognition and services) Act 1995, extended the duty of assessment to rights of carers to have their needs assessed alongside those of the person whom they are caring Referring to the case study Jan appears not coping well as Magdas carer. Here probably with adequate and appropriate support package Jan will be able to carry out his caring duties if Magda was to stay in the community. The task for social workers in this case involves helping Magda to overcome the structural, institutional, cultural, professional and personal barriers that may contribute to physical disability, in line with views of Adams et al (2002). It appears that Magda is unable to communicate her personal wishes due to a language barrier; she may need an option of having an independent advocate who can represent her. There are issues around the use of relatives as interpreters as relatives may be biased towards their personal wish that may be contrary to wishes of the service user. The amendment to the Race Relations Act 2001, states that no one that uses public services should be disadvantaged because of their race, colour or faith as advocated in Br J Soc Work (2010). In Victoria Climbers case, where interpretation was done mainly through an aunt, stands as an example where vital information was missed despite being seen up to 40 times by social services, the police and the NHS. It is most likely to be true that the use of professional interpreter could have led to changes and outcomes for Victoria Climbers case. Thus in Magdas case it is only right to gather information in regards to Magda through a professional interpreter. In line here Magda has capacity and has the right to make decisions about her care plan. The key legislation essential in this assessment is The National Health Service and Community Care Act 1990 (NHSCCA) which addresses the provision of information about services, assessment and service delivery principles. Section 47 of this act requires a local authority to assess all those who may be in need of community care services, and having regard to the results, decide whether the needs call for provision according to Johns (2005). An initiation of an assessment for Magda may be done through the powers of this Act. The first piece of legislation to materialise that would involve Jan is the Carers (Recognition and Services) Act 1995. This Act is an important step towards recognising carers and the supporting role they play in looking after their family members, and the difficulties they face. This Act gives carers like Jan the right to an assessment both physical and mental. This would be carried out annually. However if the person being cared for refuse an assessment, then the carers would not be entitled to an assessment. The department of Healths publication Building Bridges (1998) also provides the legislative framework recognising the carers role. The Carers and Disabled Children Act (2000) strengthened the rights of carers to an assessment of their needs. This is irrespective of whether the person they are caring for receives the service or not. The help ranges from driving lessons, counselling and or even money to replace a broken machine. After all the considerations of the laws and boundaries the needs and resources, a care plan is formulated. The social worker should promote the right of Magda to self- determination to where she should live. If on the assessment Magda is found to have capacity and is adamant to stay in her home, in such a case weighing the risks available to Magda if she remains in her own accommodation. If there are no majooor risks her wish should be respected. Even though self-determination is a basic principle in social work practice, all practitioners know that there are situations in which the client should not be given the right to self-determination. Part of the community Care Act (1990), highlights choice, Kemshall (2002, p76) states how this can be conflicted with ones own personal view, choice, a central principle of community care, can be significantly undermined by professional desires to prevent risk. Magdas has had her leg amputated due to gangrene, which causes mobility difficulties. Her poor sight due to diabetes adds on to mobility needs. The aim is to prevent disability where Disability is defined under the DDA1995 as physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long term adverse effect on a persons ability to carry out normal day to day activities(Mandelstam 2005) p 490. Magda is already known to the mental health services; however she appears to being violent to Jan. It is important for Magda to have a specialist mental health assessment. Ulasand Connor (2000) Through the mental health route, Magda may be eligible for services through the Mental Health Act 2007 which has introduced the supervised treatment in the community. This Act modifies the 1983 Act and amends the 2005 Act. If Magda lacks capacity a named person can make a decision on Magdas best interests under the Mental Capacity Act 1 (5). Under this acts the social worker would be able to promote healthy, safety and personal wellbeing of both Magda and Jan. It may be suggested that in situation where risk is low Magda may also be entitled under section 29 of the National Assistance Act 1948 to a mandatory grant for essential adaptations that will enable her to move around her home more easily Brayne, et al (2001). Examples of the type of adaptations that may be carried out are: Installing a stair lift, providing a toilet and shower downstairs, installing a ramp. Bornat, J. (1994). Magda may get funding for adaptations through Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act (1996), disabled facilities. Magdas diabetes and schizophrenia and amputation places a duty on the local council to assess needs provide services through the Chronically Sick and Disabled Persons Act (1970). Under this act, the Local Authority has a duty to assist a service user with practical help in and around the home. This includes the personal care, transport services and meal facilities for the service user, sharky (2000). A home carer may be arranged for Magda under section 2 of the CSDPA 1970 to provide personal care, such as assistance with bathing and dressing, help with getting in and out of bed, and help with medicines. It also includes practical assistance in the home to improve safety, comfort, and convenience and manage with daily tasks more easily and independently as suggested in Maczka, K .(1990). The 1968 HSPHA (section 45 DHSS Circular 19/71) instructs the Social Services to cater for the delivery of hot meals to Magda at her home by a meals-on-wheels service. However a charge is usually made for each meal. Section 21 Sch. 8 of the 1977 National Health Service Act provides a laundry service for people who are incontinent or who for some reason cannot do their own laundry in line with Vernon, S. ( 1997). If the risk is high for Magda to live in her house and does not want to go into residential homes, supported housing may be an option. The National Assistance Act 1948 Sec 20 facilitates provision of appropriate accommodation. This Act may be used if Magda is voluntarily moving, however her condition should satisfy two requirements and one should be medical. Supported housing offers a wide range of support tailored needs. Service users in supported housing can live as independent and as private. There is an option of companionship from staff if one needs it. Most services offered in Magdas home are available if she chooses to go in supported housing in Heywood et al. (2002). It is probably possible that, after the assessment Magda had been seen as unfit to live in the community even with support, and has to go to residential home against her wishes. The National Assistance Act gives compulsory powers to put Magda in a care home. This decision may be made in her best interest of Magda. The General Social Care Council codes of practice that call for attention towards empowerment and choice. The guidelines are aimed at employers and employees to maintain to a reasonable standard of practice within the social work field. The General Social Care Council, codes of practice expects social care workers to, Supporting service users rights to control their lives and make informed choices about the services they receive; (G.S.C.C. 2002 p1). The other issue is that the couple are experiencing financial issues; Jan is accumulating debt in the local shop. There is need to investigate the reason why Jan is accumulating debt. There is need explore whether the accumulation of debt is not due to alcohol, drug abuse and or gambling. There is a possibility of Jan being vulnerable and experiencing financial abuse from a member(s) of the community. In order to get the true picture of what is taking place, it is important to discuss the debt problems with Jan. It is equally important to check if Jan and Magda are getting all the benefits that they are entitled to. The assessment of peoples needs is a local authoritys responsibility part of the section 47, NHSCCA 1990. The assessment of needs guides whether service provision by community care is required. Needs led assessments are being highlighted in order to move away from resource led assessments. This act allows professionals to fit a person into an existing service rather than getting the service to fit the persons needs. Limited resource eliminates availability of choice. An example would be, a home carer being sent to an elderly person home to provide caring duties. Due to lack of resource and money the carer has to provide home care at an early time of 7pm. This is considered too early for the client who wishes to go to bed after 8pm. But as there may be no other services the client could settle for what is provided, this is a violation of the clients choice. These issues can be magnified as forms of discrimination and oppression. The principles of consumerism underpin many of the objec tives from community care provisions, this is what is in line to Thompson (2003): Station 1998. The Carers (Recognition and Services) Act 1995 and the Community Care (Direct Payments) Act 1996 established statutory intervention in the caring field. Direct Payment scheme does allow users to obtain cash instead of services from local authority. Direct Payment scheme promotes a caring service, which revolves around contracts and employment law, Crawford and Walker (2006). Personalisation of service promotes independence, enabling individuals to have a greater choice and gives clients the responsibility for meeting their housing related support needs The local authority still has an overall say, local authority has discretion over whether to offer someone direct payments and can decide whether they are appropriate and whether the disabled person can manage them (DOH 1998a in Sharkey, 2000). The White paper Caring for people (DOH, 1989), aims hope to enable people to live a normal life as much as possible in their own homes or in a homely environment in the community. It also states that the right amount of care and support should be provided to help people achieve independence by maintaining basic living skills to achieve daily living activities. The main aim, which highlights empowerment, is the prevention of gate keeping allowing individuals to have a greater say towards how they live their lives and the service provision. Kemshall and Littlechild (2000). Ungerson and Kember further state how feminist research looks at the significance of women in informal care and the effect this has in differences between male and female participation in the labour market. Feminists such as Mc Laughlin and Glendinning (1994), Lewis (1992), Ungerson and Kember (1997) etc. have recognised that gender relations in the welfare state are not as simple as mainstream theorists such as Esping-Anderson would have us believe. On the same line, the other feminists such as Barnes (1997) have also looked into gender differences in the welfare state by studying informal care, and the gendered imbalances surrounding it. Barnes claims that women have the main responsibility for informal care. (1997:13). It can be assumed that many policies of the welfare state are at the present, not geared towards Mclaughlin and Glendinnings de-feminisation. According to Henwood 1998, 1in 8 persons is an informal carer to either a relative or a family member, which has led this group of people to become more recognised for the support they give to clients. Supporting carers not surprisingly has proved increasingly popular with the government, because it helps to reduce the demand of local authority funded service, reasserting the responsibility onto families and individuals. However as straightforward as this may seem, the government cuts has added to the difficult task of translating the support into actual rights and benefits in my view. Finch and Groves (1977) argue that policies for community care were, within a context of public expenditure cuts, and were fundamentally incompatible with policies for equal opportunities for women. They claimed that in practice community care equals care by the family, and in practice care by the family equals care by women. (Ungerson, 1987: 494) Because of feminist contributions and increased knowledge of community care the Equal Opportunities Commission commissioned a study of carers and for the first time a serious effort had been made to plot the incidence of caring and to discover the sex ratio. The results found, Out of the 116 carers, 87 (75%) were women and 29 (25%) were men. (Equal Opportunities Commission, 1982b, 3) The Equal Opportunities Commission then published a set of recommendations for the support of carers, in terms of services, financial benefits and employment rights, (The Equal Opportunities Commission). The carers visible to government statistics are married men aged less than 64 years old caring for their disabled wives and single people caring for infirm parents. Carers are only visible to policy makers when they receive some kind of state benefit, yet many welfare benefits exclude married womenà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.(Equal Opportunities Commission, 1982b: 3) Further to this councils have adopted a top down model in which local disability organisations are not closely enough involved within. Social workers need to work in partnership with service users and not make assumptions about what they feel is the best for them, even if it appears obvious and the wishes of the service user must be respected. It requires skill and professional judgement on behalf of the social worker to balance the wishes of the adult with the need to protect them. There are no specific laws relating primarily to old people like there is for children under the Children Act 1989 therefore social workers must draw on legislation from different areas in order to provide the best outcome. The training and specialist knowledge the social worker has, the more positive the outcome is likely to be. Also the available resources within the local authority have a significant impact on the care and support that an old person receive and varies widely in different regions. This lack of resources inhibits the proper application of the law, Crawford and Walker (2006). As a social worker it is important to be aware that people are different and where there is difference there is the potential of unfair discrimination. Stanton, (1998). Anti-discriminatory practice is a complex area with many and diverse dimensions such as disability, race, gender, age and sexuality. Much of the discrimination inherent in social work can be seen to be unintentional, due to lack of awareness rather than deliberate attempts to oppress. Thompson (2001). It is important to intervene in a non-discriminatory and non oppressive manner when working with older people. Thompson, (2001) p 88, explained that social work with older people has a considerable discriminatory potential. Society has a tendency of marginalising issues relating particularly to problems of old age. This behaviour can be referred as ageism, and ageism behaviour is in itself discriminatory. Hughes and Mtezuka (1992) describe ageism as the social process through which negative of and attitudes towards older people based solely on the characteristic of old age itself, resulting in discrimination. There is a lot of reference to empowerment and choice in social work settings when in actual fact, one wonders if this is fully promoted. Given that the majority of disabled people are on low incomes or are reliant on welfare payments, their choice is effectively limited to services chosen for them by the local authority social services department. Barnes et al (1999) cited in Kemshall and Littlechild (2000) p 218 On the same subject, Hugman (1998) cited in Kemshall , stresses that these services are made possible through the tax payers money and the same people paying into the taxes are the professionals that control the budgets which poses are a question to the idea of choice made by the consumer. The government cost cutting scheme has negatively affected welfare services, making reference to empowerment and choice meaningless. The power I hold as a social worker, could be used constructively as a useful tool for empowering this family in order to take steps to combat the imbalances that exist between us, and, if used appropriately can enhance their lives, whereas abuse of this power would reinforce the power imbalance and oppression. These power issues can be used to inform my practice and as Stein (1976) in Williams, F. (1989:172) suggests, the relationship between races, social classes and between helping professionals and their clients are all variations of unequal power relations in society. The power imbalance between white social workers supporting ethnic minority clients, places the professional on a privileged position, this may contribute to discrimination and oppression. Thompson (2003). It is possible then to address these imbalances of power, discrimination and oppression? By developing an understanding of the concept of race and cultural differences and identities and oppression. Race and oppression cannot be fully understood without also understanding the notion of power and as Thompson distinguishes the social worker may not be sufficiently sensitive to issues of power/powerlessness and oppression. Thompson 2001: 139. As it has been argued by Thompson (2003:p49,80) that a sophisticated understanding of the presentations of power and its significance within social work are crucial in order to challenge inequality, discrimination and oppression. (Total of 3660 words) CONCLUSION please get the current Copy

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

A Look into the Secrets Behind Advertising Essay -- Advertisements Med

A Look into the Secrets behind Advertising Did you know that in the course of an average day you are bombarded by over three thousand advertisements? (Faigley 93) From bus stations and newspapers, to e-mails, television, and music videos, today's marketers are finding innovative ways to make their advertisements sophisticated and appealing so that they can lure consumers to their products. How has this phenomena occurred? This â€Å"strategic advertising† is not as complicated as it sounds. In fact, businesses use a formula-like approach when creating such advertisements. In order to be a savvy consumer, I recommend that you be aware of these techniques. To create an ad, businesses research consumer trends. One steadily growing trend in America is the â€Å"on-the-go† fast food industry . . . and it seems as if Americans can not get enough of those juicy cheeseburgers and greasy fries! In order to encourage healthier habits, marketers focus on weight loss and fitness, using strategic advertising to sell their product. An excellent example of strategic advertising is found in the January 2004 issue of People Magazine . This ad, sponsored by Life Time Fitness, promotes Lean Source weight supplement pills. The ad pictures a beautiful, healthy model standing on the beach during a cloudy day. Her arms are wide open, directing us to read the words written below. In the corner of the ad sits a bright bottle of Lean Source weight loss pills and a â€Å"stamp† of approval for the product. This advertisement illustrates how a company uses strategic advertising to sell its product to consumers like us by displaying its supposed credibility, emotional and sexual appeal, and effective visual design. ... ...Life Time Fitness's ad utilizes marketing strategies by making the ad believable, emotionally and sexually attractive, and visually pleasing. Congratulations! You are now an official savvy consumer, so the next time you see an ad that â€Å"catches your eye†, be sure to take a second glance at it. You will be thankful that you did. Works Cited Faigley , Lester, and Jack Selzer . Good Reasons with Contemporary Arguments . 2nd ed . New York : Pearson bbbbbbLongman, 2004. Meadows, Michelle. â€Å"Public Health Officials Caution Against Ephedra Use† FDA Consumer Magazine June 2003:1-3. 2003. U.S . Food and Drug Administration. 26 Jan. 2004 . Zarefsky , David. Public Speaking: Strategies for Success, Penn State Version . 2003-2004 ed . New York : Pearson Printing, 2003.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Miss Brill Essay

In Katherine Mansfield’s short story â€Å"Miss Brill,† Mansfield describes Miss Brill as a woman who is in deep denial of her situation. Miss Brill is an elderly woman who is not aware of the distress in her life; because she doesn’t want to face the reality of getting old. Miss Brill shows the personality of a woman who is vain, detached, and over sensitive as she goes through her specific Sunday in the park wearing her favorite â€Å"Dear little thing† fur (65). Because Miss Brill struggles to admit the reality of getting old, her vanity makes her thinks she’s a special person and an actress in the play. Miss Brill believes she has a â€Å"special seat† (65) in Jardin’s Publiques the park where she sits every time. This particular Sunday afternoon is quite special for Miss Brill, because she has taken out her favourite fur from the box. Her â€Å"little rogue† (65) is like a pet â€Å"biting its tail just by her left ear† (65), and she imagines it as her companion. As Miss Brill goes through her day on watching and listening other people in the park she thought, â€Å"She had become really quite expert . . . t listening though she didn’t listen, at sitting in other people’s lives just for a minute while they talked round her† (65). She fantasizes about reading a newspaper to an invalid gentleman snoring besides her, pretending to be on stage and believing she was a good actress. â€Å"An actress —are ye? † (67) thought Miss Brill, which again shows her vanity. Although Miss Brill is a teacher and is around people in the p ark every Sunday, her detachment is revealed by her not making any actual contact with her patrons. She is always distant, reserved and aloof. The only companion she has is her fur, she â€Å"laid it on her lap and stroked it† (65). When the band started to play again, she thought the music â€Å"was warm, sunny, yet there was just a faint chill . . . , what was it? . . . , not sadness—a something that made you want to sing? †(67). Miss Brill rejects the feelings of pain and loneliness detaching herself from being hurt. As Miss Brill continues her moment of delusion, her over sensitivity is apparent when a boy and a girl suddenly come to sit ext to her, she is looking forward listening to their conversation as she thought of them as a â€Å"hero and a heroine,† (68) but to her dismay, she hears them talking about her, calling her â€Å"that stupid old thing† (68), and making fun of her favourite fur: â€Å"It’s her fu-fur . . . It’s exactly like a fried whiting† (68). Miss Brill is hurt and on her way home, she skips going to the bakery to buy her favourite treat. Instead she goes straight home, puts her fur in the box and goes into her dark, cupboard-like room. While sitting there for a long time â€Å"she heard something crying,† (68). Miss Brill is the one crying, yet she doesn’t want to face the reality of getting old and the resemblance she has with her old fur. After every denial and rejection of her pain and loneliness, Miss Brill’s reality comes in a harsh way when she hears the young couple making fun of her. Finally, she allows herself to feel the pain, hurt, and loneliness for a moment. Miss Brill’s vanity, detachment, and over sensitivity are her weapons to hide her emotional struggle of accepting the reality of becoming a spinster.

Friday, November 8, 2019

US Involvement in Nicaragua essays

US Involvement in Nicaragua essays Some might say that Nicaragua has been a pawn in the US battle against Soviet-Cuban Communist control in Latin America. Relationships between the US and Nicaragua go back to the Gold Rush and Cornelius Vanderbilt's attempts to expedite the travel between the two coasts of the US. Vanderbilt bought the rights to shuttle fortune-seekers across Nicaragua to avoid their having to cross the width of the United States or travel around Cape Horn. Eventually, controversy among the Nicaraguan people led to a civil war in 1853. The US was further drawn into the conflict when the left-wing army hired an American, William Walker, to fight for them. Walker and his mercenaries quickly conquered Grenada, the stronghold of the Conservative parties and found themselves in charge of the army. Walker, however, had his eyes on the presidency, which he eventually took. Walker was not the end of US intervention in Nicaragua. The government had aligning aspirations with Cornelius Vanderbilt and decided to build their canal through Nicaragua, which was less disease ravaged than the other contender, Panama. However, due to previous treaty agreements, the US would have to share control of any canal built through Nicaragua with Great Britain, and so the plan was abandoned. Instead, the US built an exclusively controlled canal through Panama. From 1893 – 1909, a general by the name of Zelaya had exclusive control of the Nicaraguan government. However, in 1909, with US support, this government was overthrown and a pro-US government was established. Throughout the early 1900's, US Marines helped quell minor rebellions throughout Nicaragua and occupy much of the country. Finally, in 1933, the marines leave under the premise of peace with the guerrilla leader Gen. Sandino. A man named Anastasio Somoza is put in charge of the National Guard and therefore controls the country with an iron fist. Until 1979, the Somoza family serves as the totalitarian government i...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Business Plan Essays - Retail, Free Essays, Term Papers

Business Plan Essays - Retail, Free Essays, Term Papers Business Plan BUSINESS DESCRIPTION Oak Furniture Warehouse, is a furniture store specializing in the selling of furnishings constructed hardwoods, the bulk of which will be oak, to Coeur dAlene area customers. The store will be a show floor/warehouse, with 85 percent of the available space open to the customers. The merchandise has been carefully selected to be affordable to the majority of consumers along with higher line items for upgrades and future purchases. Oak Furniture Warehouse, plans to open for business during January, 2000. The store will be open Monday thru Friday, from 10:00 am till 8:00 pm and Saturday, from 10:00 am till 6:00 pm. In the strong and stable furniture sales market, Oak Furniture Warehouse will stand out as a leader in customer service and quality craftsmanship. A strong customer focus, an accessible location and a broad product line will enable the establishment to slowly and steadily develop a loyal customer base. The retail demand for home and office furnishings is seasonal and business in Coeur dAlene fluctuates according to the seasons. Primarily, the Oak Furniture Warehouse, will attract business during seasonally slow months through a comprehensive marketing and promotional strategy to generate additional revenues in these slack periods. Secondly, by directing attention to the business and home office markets, which budget more on a fiscal basis. Finally, there is no direct competition in the area giving The Oak Furniture Warehouse an advantage in the lack of competition. MARKET PROFILE Oak Furniture Warehouse, will provide quality, competitively priced specialty furniture not yet available from a single source in the Coeur dAlene metro area. The goal is to sell solid, well built furniture through a knowledgeable and professional sales staff in an inviting atmosphere, that will encourage customers to return to the Oak Furniture Warehouse for all their home furniture needs. The well crafted quality of our product. The affordable pricing and group discounts. Convenience of a local location. Our convenient location, where ample parking is available. Word of mouth advertising from past customers. CUSTOMER PROFILE The 4 major categories of customers are: First time buyers, recently out on their own Young families - renting or purchasing a home Families updating their existing furnishings General population fulfilling a need for furniture Younger family being our largest market target. According to research (Washington State Business Journal, 1990 US Census, and area statistics) the target customer for home furnishings is as follows: Educated female Twenty two to thirty two years old Lives with her family in a home Family income of $30,000 to $45,000. Experience has shown that on the average, customers are ready to update their furniture every six years and this would translate into a stable source of future sales. DESCRIPTION OF COMPETITION Black Canyon Oak Originals - 901 N. 3rd, Coeur dAlene, ID A high end, specialized furniture store with limited floor space and inventory. Targets the more affluent homeowners and resort area tastes. 4 years in business 3 sales persons, 1 warehouse person no delivery The Furniture Broker - 609 W. Appleway, Coeur dAlene, ID A large franchise furniture showroom specializing in upholstered lower quality furniture located north central Coeur dAlene. The furniture broker is well-financed and uses extensive advertising campaign. They offer a large array of mass produced accessories for sale from its retail floor. 2 years in business 3 sales persons, 2 warehouse persons, area delivery Runge Furniture Co. - 303 E. Spokane Ave., Coeur dAlene, ID A large store that has a good reputation and has been in the area for many years. They offer all home furniture, of all hardwood types and are priced high for the market. They only carry expensive, well known makers of furniture. Their staff is friendly and knowledgeable. 43 years in business 3 sales persons, 1 warehouse person, area delivery MARKETING STRATEGIES Being a new store the primary plan is to have a grand opening sale, lasting 9 days (over two weekends). Advertising will be through the local newspaper, flyers will be sent out to all new home buyers within the last 6 months, renting of a balloon for location exposure, having a clown on the first two weekends and to give away one bedroom set as prize for visiting the new Oak Furniture Warehouse. Ongoing advertising will be shared with the Spokane stores, which consists of Yellow Pages

Sunday, November 3, 2019

FEAR OF TECHNOLOGY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

FEAR OF TECHNOLOGY - Essay Example There is a revealing fact that people are now able to envision the future in terms of technology. Our lives are dominated by products and the problems of technology because all aspects of our lives; social activities, education, even religion has come to rely heavily on technology (Banks & Stevens, 2005, p.265). The truth that has emerged is the fear of technology in relation to what they will do because its adoption has robbed humans’ privacy and even access to a variety of information. Moreover, technology has become an impersonal mechanism and this can be seen in the governments and corporate in the way they have enabled machines to run by themselves and not with the control of an individual. The society as a whole has raised questions on whether there are difficulties in the way people characterize the way technology has been embraced, or the way technology has had an impact in their lives. Complications come about in the freedom the people have in using technology, this is seen in the way humans give machines something that is humanity. When human beings refuse one or more of their responsibilities, machine readily fill the position and performs the task. Humans have developed the tendency to give expressions to do and take up the independent life they have in technology, and th e truth behind this is amplified in the technology of computers, making computers independent agents. People should not forget the fact that the autonomous life we have is our own, and there should be a confrontation with all agencies of technology in all aspects of our lives. The solution best suited to overcome this intoxication caused by technology is finding a balance that is right (Carroll & Buchholtz, 2011, p 274). This can be done by balancing between the emphases on human freedom where technology should be made neutral, and putting an established emphasis on proclivities of the humans by

Friday, November 1, 2019

U.S. Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

U.S. Law - Essay Example In business agreements, it is generally presumed by courts that there is an intention to create legal relations unless the parties insert a clause that their agreement shall not be binding in law but shall be binding in honor only. A contract is an agreement between two or more persons which is intended to create legally binding obligations. The word 'binding' is used for there are some contract which are valid but are not enforceable contract, certain basic requirements must be present. There must be an agreement based upon genuine consent of parties, supported by consideration and unable for a lawful object between competent parties. (Hussain, 2002).An offer may be made to a specific person or to any member of a group of persons or to the world at large, but it can not form the basis of a contract until it has been accepted an ascertained person or group of persons.For this case, the owner of happy acres made an offer to sell his property on March 15th to an interesting buyer. He o ffered to sell his property for $200,000, closing to take place 18 days of acceptance, time being of essence. The offeror added that if the offeree sent him a non refundable $4000, the offer would remain open for 30 days from the date thereof. This meant that if the offeree paid a non-refundable $4000, the offer would remain open for 30 days.The owner of Happyacres was told by a business acquaintance that he thought that would pay up to $275,000 for Happyacres on March 25th and he changed his mind and wrote a letter on March 26th. The offeror was actually revoking the original offer

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

What is meant by transaction costs and what part do they play in our Essay

What is meant by transaction costs and what part do they play in our understanding of the reasons for the existence of firms - Essay Example Coase’s theory that the transaction costs form the economic groundwork for all firms, thus becoming the sole reason for the existence of any organisation within marketplace, however has met with a number of contradictions. Many economists contend that existence of firms is not solely dependent on transaction costs. Other abilities (like being able to handle large variety of resources)   are of great advantage to any firm, especially in the context of new technologies, which create various opportunities where the organisation can improve their production values and increase their revenues, where the earned benefits accumulate to ‘start-ups,’ capable of creating more contemporary firms (  Alchian, and Demsetz, 1972, 777-795). Thus here the basic question is: does Coase’s theory on transaction costs present a holistic view on explaining why firms exist? In  economics,  transaction cost  refers to the expenditure  incurred while making a financial exchange, which can be stated as the cost incurred when one wishes to participate in a market. Humans by nature are social animals and tend to group together to conduct their various daily affairs, conducting business being one of them. Bartering is also another basic human nature, and this is most evident in marketplaces, where individuals tend to seek the best bargain by competing with their opponents (Maynard, 1982). Markets are organised social spaces for conducting such businesses or exchange of items and have been in vogue from the ancient times. Right from its origin there has been two forms of market: external market, where trade took place between communities, located at long distances from each other; and internal market, which is located within a particular society or community (Swedberg, 2005, 234-235). The producers gather here for gaining more customers;

Monday, October 28, 2019

Family in African-American Literature Essay Example for Free

Family in African-American Literature Essay In literary pieces such as Alice Walker’s story â€Å"Everyday Use†, Langston Hughes’ â€Å"My People†, and Robert Hayden’s poem â€Å"Those Winter Sundays†, the theme of family relationships is significantly evident. In â€Å"Everyday Use†, Walker presents one stage and aspect of a family life when one adult child chooses to live on her own while the other one stays with the family. Hughes’ poem portrays his love for his people which he considers to be a family as a whole. Meanwhile, Hayden’s â€Å"Those Winter Sundays†, talks about the narration and description of a boy about his father whom he is not well acquainted with. As the first piece speaks of a story about a family in relation to their heritage, the latter speaks of a boy’s reminiscence of a father who was never able to show his love directly to his children. These two aspects of family relationships reveal several angles to look upon.   Such family situations are influenced by authors’ own race and heritage. Alice Walker portrays the story of a fully grown-up daughter, Dee, who goes back to home to her home to visit her mother, Mrs. Johnson and her younger sister, Maggie. She arrives accompanied by an African American Muslim man who is currently dating her. She comes home to collect some family possessions which she intends to turn into artistic pieces to be exhibited in a museum. Meanwhile, her sister Maggie grimaces as her sister takes some of their personal belongings including a quilt that her mother has promised to give her as a wedding present. Dee tells her mother that Maggie would only ruin the quilt by using it everyday which puzzles Mrs. Johnson as she could not think of any way to use the quilt than to spread them. When Mrs. Johnson sees the sadness in her younger daughter’s eyes upon Dee taking the quilt, she snatches it away and gives it to Maggie. Dee walks away after claiming that their problem is they do not understand their own heritage (Walker). In this story, Walker portrays a family whose eldest daughter has become estranged from them. In the first part of the story, Mrs. Johnson recounts how Dee had hated living in their house and even almost set it on fire when she was young. The concept of a dysfunctional family is quite present here; however, it focuses more on the mother-child relationship rather than every member of the family. It is important to note that Walker made use of the damaged relationship of Dee to her mother and sister to show and illustrate the different types of African American people. On the other hand, Langston Hughes shows his love and appreciation for his people in his poem â€Å"My People†. He does not speak of family but his tone and use of words make it seem as if he is speaking of his beloved family. â€Å"The night is beautiful, / So the faces of my people† (lines 1-2). The possessive pronoun â€Å"my† indicates a certain intimacy between him and â€Å"his† people which is usually used for referring to a small group of people who shares something intimate and common such as â€Å"my family†. In this regard, Hughes speaks highly of his race as if he is talking about a family he loves most. â€Å"The stars are beautiful, /  So the eyes of my people† (3-4). The comparison of his people to the heavens indicates the depth of his love and care for them as he would to his family. â€Å"Beautiful, also, is the sun. / Beautiful, also, are the souls of my people† (5-6). In the poem â€Å"Those Winter Sundays†, it can be assumed that Robert Hayden personally speaks through the voice of the speaker in his poem â€Å"Those Winter Sundays†. His distant relationship with his father is evident. In this melancholic poem, he narrates about the concealed appreciation of a son for his father’s acts of love by means of writing it in a prose. The narrator tells about the labors of his father even on a cold winter Sunday. However, in the poem, the speaker emphasizes that his father’s great efforts are usually ignored. The title of the poem itself already suggests a background for the readers. The speaker is obviously focused only on the â€Å"winter Sundays† and why it means too much work for the father. In the first stanza of the poem, the detailed description of the speaker’s father is very noticeable. He illustrated him by means of mentioning his physical condition as he works on cold Sundays. He could have described it in a clearer way by going straight to the point.   Nevertheless, he expressed his father’s poor countenance in a way that the reader can visualize the father’s hands cracked hands and the busy Sundays. The first two lines of the poem somewhat develops a thesis that would cover the whole idea in the poem. â€Å"Sundays too my father got up early / And put his clothes on in the blueblack cold,† (1-2). Sundays should be a day of rest but the speaker stresses that his father still wakes up even before the sun rose to go to work. He further highlights the weary countenance of his father as he describes his father’s â€Å"cracked hands that ached / from labor in the weekday weather made / Banked fires blaze† (3-5). The poem further shows how heartbreaking the father’s situation must be by writing the last line of the first stanza with, â€Å"No one ever thanked him† (5). With the last line, it is reasonable to consider that the speaker is one of those people who failed to thank him. In this regard, it can be assumed that the speaker is already in his old or middle age when he remembers how his father has shown him love in his own way. Clearly, these renowned African-American writers have frequently used the theme of family relationships to further address the problems of their society. The issues of racism, nationalism, and love are the implicit ideas which are present in the three literary pieces discussed. These authors portrays different types of African-American families which serves as the representation of the current society that they are in. since the family is the basic unit of society, it is the primary target of societal effects such as racism and other social issues. Every problem of the society can become the problem of the family which is why the most meaningful literary works of art somewhat involves the theme of family relationships. Works Cited Hayden, Robert. â€Å"Those Winter Sundays.† The Oxford Anthology of African-American Poetry. Ed. Arnold Rampersad, Hilary Herbold. United States of America: Oxford University Press US, 2006. 261. Hughes, Langston. â€Å"My People.† Poem Hunter. 19 April 2009. Walker, Alice. Everyday Use. Ed. Barbara Christian. United States of America: Rutgers University Press, 1994.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

True Love in The Merchant of Venice Essay -- Merchant of Venice Essays

True Love in The Merchant of Venice      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Among the various themes presented in the Merchant of Venice the most important is the nature of true love.   The casket plot helps illustrate the theme.   Through a variety of suitors the descriptions of the caskets, Shakespeare shows the reader how different people view true love. He also shows what is most important to the suitors and in some cases it is not true love, but material things and outward appearance.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The first suitor who tries to win Portia's hand is the Prince of Morocco.   When he first arrives in Belmont, the reader can see how arrogant the prince is, He says, "The best regarded virgins of our clilme/ hath loved it too..." (2.1, 10-11).   He is referring to the color of his ski n that is black.   He is telling Portia that his complexion has won him many women and he is dressed in all white.   The fact that he is, suggests that he is only concerned with outward appearance, and not with more important things such as true love.   The Prince of Morocco's superficial nature shines through even more clearly when it comes time to choose the casket. He does not want to risk anything, and therefore; he does not choose the lead casket whose inscription tells the suitor he must give up everything. The Prince, after looking at the inscription of the gold casket, which read "'who chooseth me shall gain what many men desire'" (2.7, 37), decides that what he desires most is the Portia's hand so the gold must be the correct casket.   He insists that the gold casket is the one holding Portia's picture because she is so much worthier than the lead casket.   The Prince believes t... ...ove, however, is for Bassanio and she wants to marry him.   Bassanio, by choosing to risk everything he has, shows the effects that true love can have on someone.   True love can conquer any fears or apprehensions you may have. He was willing to risk everything he had in order to show his love for Portia.   In the play, Bassanio shows what true love really means and how one can not mistake outward appearances for true love.   Put succinctly, one can do nothing but agree with the adage love conquers all.    Works Cited and Consulted    Barnet Sylvan.   "Introduction." The Merchant of Venice Ed. Sylvan Barnet.   New   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Jersey : Prentice-Hall Inc., 1970.   1-10.    Granville-Barker, Harley.   "The Merchant of Venice.   " Shakespeare Ed. Leonard F. Dean.   Princeton : Princeton University Press, 1947.   37-71.   

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Famine, Affluence, and Morality Essay

By â€Å"drowning,† I mean those who are suffering help people. A few of the counter-arguments that Singer addresses are: One, that he government will be less likely to take responsibility because private organizations are organizing relief funds. Giving privately allows the government to escape their responsibilities of supplying aid. Singer does not believe that this assumption is plausible. He states: I do not, of course, want to dispute the contention that governments of affluent nations should be giving many times the amount of genuine, no-strings-attached aid that they are giving now. I agree, too, that giving privately is not enough, and that we ought to be campaigning actively for entirely new standards or both public and private contributions to famine relief. Indeed, I would sympathize with someone who thought that campaigning was more important than giving one- self, although I doubt whether preaching what one does not practice would be very effective. Unfortunately, for many people the idea that â€Å"it’s the government’s responsibility† is a reason for not giving which does not appear to entail any political action either. Two, until there is an effective population control, relieving famine will postpone starvation. If we relieve suffering that is happening in the now, the future may end p suffering instead. The best means of preventing famine is population control. However, there are organizations who work specifically with population control. Therefore, this counter-argument is not sufficient enough to allow us to stand in the background. The third counter-argument would be how much we should be giving away. Should we be giving away more that would cause suffering to ourselves? Earlier in Singer’s article, he suggests that if everybody in his situation could donate E5, then nobody would be obligated to give more. He does not suggest that we give until we each the level marginal utility- the level at which by giving more, would cause as much suffering to ourselves or our dependents. Singer’s concept of marginal utility relates to his argument by explaining and understanding that there are some people who cannot afford to support relief funds. He simply states â€Å"if everyone in circumstances like mine. † This means that not everybody will be in the same circumstance to provide funds for relief. Duty and charity, according to Singer, should be redrawn or abolished. Doing good by giving money away’ is not considered charitable by Singer, but it is doing ood. We should refrain from buying clothes for fashion if we have old clothes that are suitable to keep us warm and give the money away instead. He says, â€Å"We would not be sacrificing anything significant if we were to continue to wear our old clothes, and give the money to famine relief. By doing so, we would be preve nting another person from starving. It follows from what I have said earlier that we ought to give money away, rather than spend it on clothes which we do not need to keep us warm. † This act is not considered charitable to Singer either. Our society, however, see’s hese act as charitable because it is a voluntary donation. Personally, I do not completely disagree with Singer’s views but, I do not completely agree with them either. Jan Narveson (2004) wrote in her article Is World Poverty a Moral Problem for the Wealthy? That she does not think we owe the poor anything special. People may benefit for charities, but we should not be looked at as not the responsibility of another countrys government to take care of a poor country. It is the same as I do not think the wealthy should have to pay more taxes than the poor. We all start from somewhere and some millionaires and billionaires had to start from the bottom as well. We all work hard for the salaries we earn. On the other hand, I think that charities are used for a good cause that benefit others rather than ourselves. Singer definitely had some points that if we all give a little, the world may be a better place. Narveson also wrote in another article Welfare and Wealth, Poverty and Justice in Todays World (2004), â€Å"each of us could do vastly more than we do to the needy. That we do not is a serious moral failing. † This is completely true and upports Singer’s views as well. However, her statement is far more accurate in what we could do, rather than what we should do. My view would fall under deontological ethics. Mosser (2010) states that â€Å"deontological ethics focuses on the will of the person carrying out the act in question, his or her intention in carrying it out, and, particularly, the rule according to which the act is carried out†. For me this means that there could be different outcomes for Singer’s argument and that every aspect should be looked at. It doesn’t make his view right or wrong, but it doesn’t make the iews that counter his right or wrong either. Peter Singer’s article â€Å"Famine, Affluence, and Morality,† was written to convince people that our decisions and actions can prevent other countries from suffering. He suggests that people should do what is morally right by contributing financially to aid those who are starving, rather than purchasing â€Å"wants† for those who can afford it. Singer argues his position, provides counter-arguments, and explains his concepts for aiding countries in need. My views are not against Singer’s position, but they are not for his position either. References Mosser, K. 2010).

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Admission essay formph

I strongly believe in the convincing statement of Albert Einstein, which states that â€Å"the important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing. One cannot help but be in awe when he contemplates the mysteries of eternity, of life, of the marvelous structure of reality.†Ã‚   Relating it in my own terms, my intention to study MPH is in effect the furtherance of my own understanding of medicine, research, and the pharmaceutical industry and a way of contemplation of the wonders of drugs juxtaposed with research and statistics.The importance of the interdisciplinary approach in understanding health and my few years of working as a medical doctor are the two main foundations why I am interested to apply for the Master of Public Health with Biostatistics as the field of concentration.Through the years, I have learned a lot about the substance of doing research vis-à  -vis the development of state of the art medical interventions as well as in t he discovery of new drugs that would cure long lasting illnesses. I also realized that health and medicine as a social institution is not solely for the biomedical scientists but also for social scientists and managers. Thus, taking the MPH will surely give me a taste of the other schools of thought that would enhance my managerial and social skills.It is in my consciousness that health issues are correlated with economic, social, political, cultural, and behavioral aspects. Thus, medical doctors nowadays should equip themselves with the theories and practices of the social sciences and management to be able to solve health predicaments in a holistic fashion. Thus, this has prompted me to seek admission to the MPH program.In the future, I would also like to involve myself in the pharmaceutical industry. Hence, I see the need to equip myself with the theories and technologies of biostatistics that would be helpful in my chosen career. In the pharmaceutical industry, biostatistics is of great use particularly in carrying out laboratory tests and clinical trials for new drugs and medical interventions.My entry to the program will not only improve myself but will surely help in making the pharmaceutical industry within the bounds of empiricism. By learning the tools and techniques of biostatistics, I will be able to know the other fields of medicine such as epidemiology which is also vital amongst the pharmaceutical personnel.Taking Biostatistics would help me come up with good work decisions through the use of hard evidence. Statistics and data will also enhance my management skills through evidence based problem solving. My previous background in medicine and the learning I will gain from the program will also surely help me ensure good medical practice, hence promote bioethics.My good mathematical ability and my work experience as a medical practitioner are good guarantees that I will be able to finish the degree. Coupled with these cognitive assets, my passion for the course will also help me to be able to finish the course with flying colors.Given my life experiences that brought me up to this point of my career, I am cognitively and physically prepared enough for me to make a good graduate student. I am looking forward to my future career in my chosen field with great keenness.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

GANGS Essays (1641 words) - Crime, Criminology, Urban Decay

GANGS Essays (1641 words) - Crime, Criminology, Urban Decay GANGS OVERVIEW OF GANGS Originally the word gang had no negative connotation. In Old English, gang simply referred to a "number of people who went around together-a group." Today a gang can be defined in four basic ways: ? an organized group with a leader ? a unified group that usually remains together during peaceful times as well as times of conflict ? a group whose members show unity through clothing, language ? a group whose activities are criminal or threatening to the larger society. Gangs are one of the results of poverty, discrimination and urban deterioration. Some experts believe that young people, undereducated and without access to good jobs, become frustrated with their lives and join gangs as an alternative to boredom, hopelessness and devastating poverty. Studies have attempted to determine why gangs plague some communities but there has been no definitive answer. As a result, people working to solve gang problems have great difficulty. They find the situation overwhelming, and the violence continues. EARLY GANGS IN UNITED STATES HISTORY No groups completely fitting the above description of gangs existed in America until the early 1800s, but from the beginning of the European settlement in America there was gang-like activity, especially when class distinctions came into being. Gang members tended to be from the poorer classes and tended to be from the same race or ethnic background. They banded together for protection, recreation or financial gain. THE 20TH CENTURY GANGS In the early 1900s the U.S. economy worsened, the population grew at a rapid pace, and the gap between the rich and poor widened. All across the nation gangs appeared where poor, hopeless people lived. The dawning of the 20th century also brought with it a widespread use of firearms. 1920s By mid 1920s there were 1313 gangs in Chicago and more than 25,000 members. Gang warfare in Chicago was widespread and fighting took place along ethnic, cultural and racial lines. Some gangs had no noticeable cultural, ethnic or national ties and consisted mostly of whites. Chicano Gangs The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of Chicano (Mexican-American) gangs in Los Angeles. By the 1940s Chicano gangs established their place in Los Angeles-their zoot suits (a style of dress incorporating tapered pants, long wide- shoulder coats and broad-brimmed hats) had become a familiar sight. Fighting back against harassment of white residents and visiting soldiers during the so-called zoot suit riots in 1943 strengthened their cause. Post World War II After World War II gang membership: 1.became younger, 2.the nationality of the membership became largely non-white (though Italians, Irish and other white ethnic groups still made up a percentage), 3.drugs became a more publicized concern, 4.gang activity centered around large-scale, well-organized street fighting, were used more often, 6.the structure of organization became more rigid, 7.and society at large became concerned with gangs as a social problem and worked toward rehabilitation. Changes in Ethnic Populations The 1950s During the 1950s gang fighting rose to an all time high in cities like New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles and Cleveland. Gang members were usually in their teens. Codes of dress (black leather jackets were popular) and mannerisms were an important means of identification. Body language said a lot about the nature of the gang. When a gang decided to become a fighting, or "bopping" gang, its members immediately took on a different way of walking. A rhythmic gait, characterized by the forward movement of the head with each step. Terms for fighting were: bopping, rumbling, jitterbugging. Gang members used guns, knives, and homemade weapons. Most common drugs-alcohol, marijuana, heroin. New York gangs fought along racial lines-African-American, white, Puerto Rican. Usually they fought over girls or turf. Turf could be anything from a few blocks to an entire neighborhood. Gang members believed it was essential to protect the honor of their girlfr! iends. And in the late 1950, girl gangs, with strong ties to boy gangs, began to form. Revenge was required by an inflexible code of gang loyalty. It was from such incidents that gangs drew their sense of pride, of "being somebody." In order to combat the rise of violence, organizations like the New York City Youth Board sent social workers into the slums to form relationships with the gangs. In some